Voltammetric Determination of Xanthine with a Single‐Walled Carbon Nanotube‐Ionic Liquid Paste Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China
Electroanalysis (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/2008; 20(4):361 - 366. DOI: 10.1002/elan.200704042


Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and room temperature ionic liquid (i.e., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflourophosphate, BMIMPF6) were used to fabricate paste modified glassy electrode (GCE). It was found that the electrode showed sensitive voltammetric response to xanthine (Xt). The detection limit was 2.0×10−9 M and the linear range was 5.0×10−9 to 5.0×10−6 M. The electrode also displayed good selectivity and repeatability. In the presence of uric acid (UA) and hypoxanthine (Hx) the response of Xt kept almost unchanged. Thus this electrode could find application in the determination of Xt in some real samples. The analytical performance of the BMIMPF6-SWNT/GCE was demonstrated for the determination of Xt in human serum and urine samples.

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    • "It was also found that the same electrode can be used to detect methylparathion and its hydrolysate (p-nitrophenol) simultaneously. The similar approach was applied for the voltammetric determination of xanthine [68] and UA [69]. A highly sensitive and fast responding electrochemical sensor was also prepared for piroxicam with MWCNTs paste electrodes by Abbaspour and Mirzajani [70]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.
    Sensors 04/2009; 9(4):2289-319. DOI:10.3390/s90402289 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "trode for glucose sensing [4]. Xiao et al. constructed a carbon nanotube–ionic liquid gel modified electrode, and found that the resulting electrode possessed excellent selectivity towards the determination of xanthine [5]. In general, ILs can improve the analytical characteristics of the modified electrodes to some extent. "
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    ABSTRACT: An ionic liquid (i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluophosphate, BMIMPF6)–single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) paste coated glassy carbon electrode (BMIMPF6–SWNT/GCE) has been fabricated. The electrode shows good electro-catalysis to the reduction of methylparathion (MP) and MP can accumulate effectively on it. Thus, MP can produce a sensitive cathodic peak on the BMIMPF6–SWNT/GCE. Parameters influencing the voltammetric response of MP are optimized for MP determination. Under the selected experimental conditions (i.e. solution pH 7.0; accumulation time, 180 s; accumulation potential, on open-circuit; the ratio of SWNT to BMIMPF6 1:20 (mg μL−1)), the peak current is linear to MP concentration over the range of 2.0 × 10−9 to 4.0 × 10−6 M. The detection limit is 1.0 × 10−9 M. Therefore, this system is quite sensitive in comparison with other electrochemical methods. In addition, it is found that the hydrolysate of MP (i.e. p-nitrophenol, PNP) can also produce a sensitive cathodic peak under this condition. But the peaks of MP and PNP do not overlap with each other. Hence they can be determined simultaneously. This electrode has been applied to the determination of MP and PNP in real samples.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 05/2008; 132(1-132):34-39. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2008.01.010 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel room temperature ionic liquid (i.e., 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, OMIMPF6)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) gel-chitosan (Chi) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The OMIMPF6-MWNT gel-Chi composite showed good conductivity, stability, and extraction effect due to the synergic action of OMIMPF6, MWNT, and Chi. Furthermore, it was found that the OMIMPF6-MWNT gel-Chi composite had strong electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of nitrite and at the OMIMPF6-MWNT gel-Chi/GCE nitrite could produce a very sensitive anodic peak. Under optimized conditions, the peak current was linear to nitrite concentration from 2.0×10−8 to 6.0×10−5 M. The detection limit was 1.0×10−8 M. The electrode also exhibited acceptable stability, repeatability and selectivity. It was used successfully for the determination of nitrite in soil, sewage and sausage samples.
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