Voltammetric Determination of Xanthine with a Single‐Walled Carbon Nanotube‐Ionic Liquid Paste Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
ABSTRACT Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and room temperature ionic liquid (i.e., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflourophosphate, BMIMPF6) were used to fabricate paste modified glassy electrode (GCE). It was found that the electrode showed sensitive voltammetric response to xanthine (Xt). The detection limit was 2.0×10−9 M and the linear range was 5.0×10−9 to 5.0×10−6 M. The electrode also displayed good selectivity and repeatability. In the presence of uric acid (UA) and hypoxanthine (Hx) the response of Xt kept almost unchanged. Thus this electrode could find application in the determination of Xt in some real samples. The analytical performance of the BMIMPF6-SWNT/GCE was demonstrated for the determination of Xt in human serum and urine samples.
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.Sensors 01/2009; 9(4):2289-319. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A mesoporous graphite material micro-structured with palladium-platinum deposits (mixed in the ratio of 70: 30% Pd:Pt) has been used as a cost-effective electrode material for designing an amperometric biosensor for xanthine. The here reported biosensor shows significantly improved operational parameters as compared to previously published results. At a constant applied potential of -0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) it is distinguished with enhanced selectivity of the determination: at the working potential the current from the electrochemical transformation of various electrochemically active substances usually attending biological fluids (incl. uric acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione and paracetamol) has been eliminated. The effect of both the temperature and buffer composition on the analytical performance of the sensor has been investigated. Under optimal operational conditions (25 degrees C, -0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl, phosphate buffer, pH 8.4), the following have been defined for the biosensor: sensitivity 0.39 mu A mu M(-1), strict linearity of the response up to xanthine concentration 70 mu M, detection limit of 1.5 mu M (S/N=3) and a response time of at most 60 s.Central European Journal of Chemistry 09/2010; 8:19-27. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A stripping method for the determination of xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine at the submicromolar concentration levels is described. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation at the thin-film mercury electrode followed by a fast linear scan voltammetric measurement of the surface species. Optimum experimental conditions were found to be the use of 1.0 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) NaOH solution as supporting electrolyte, an accumulation potential of 0.00 V for xanthine and -0.50 V for hypoxanthine-copper, and a linear scan rate of 200 mV second(-1). The response of xanthine is linear over the concentration ranges of 20-140 ppb. For an accumulation time of 30 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 36 ppt (2.3 × 10(-10) mol L(-1)). Adequate conditions for measuring the xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine, copper and other metals, uric acid, and other nitrogenated bases were also investigated. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the presence of xanthine associated with hypoxanthine, uric acid, nitrogenated bases, ATP, and ssDNA.Analytical Chemistry Insights 01/2014; 9:49-55.