Leonardos N, Geider RJ.. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases organic carbon fixation by Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. J Phycol 41: 1196-1203

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, Essex, UK
Journal of Phycology (Impact Factor: 2.84). 12/2005; 41(6):1196 - 1203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00152.x


Phytoplankton play a key role in determining the partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere and the ocean on seasonal, interannual, and millennial time scales. The magnitude of biological draw-down of atmospheric CO2 and C storage in the oceans is affected by concurrent changes in other environmental factors, like nutrient supply. Furthermore, variations in carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and carbon-to-phosphorus (C:P) assimilation ratios modify the oceanic CO2 storage capacity. Here we show that increased atmospheric CO2 concentration enhances CO2 fixation into organic matter by a noncalcifying strain of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay & Mohler only under certain conditions, namely high light and nutrient limitation. Enhanced organic matter production was accompanied by marked deviations of the C:N:P ratio from the canonical stoichiometry of marine particulate matter of 106:16:1 (C:N:P) known as the Redfield ratio. Increased cell organic carbon content, C:N, and C:P were observed at high light when growth was either nitrogen or phosphorus limited. Elevated CO2 led to further increases in the particulate C:N and C:P ratios. Enhanced CO2 uptake by phytoplankton such as E. huxleyi, in response to elevated atmospheric CO2, could increase carbon storage in the nitrogen-limited regions of the oceans and thus act as a negative feedback on rising atmospheric CO2 levels.

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    • "The increase of POC : N in response to P limitation was primarily due to increase in cell size and POC, whereas the increase in response to N limitation was brought about by lower N. Relative to the nutrientreplete cells, which had an N : P ratio of 17.8, the N-limited cells had a significantly lower N : P ratio of 7.9, whereas P-limited cells had a significantly higher ratio of 39. These deviations from Redfield C : N : P stoichiometry that occurred in response to nutrient limitation are consistent with previous observations for E. huxleyi (Leonardos and Geider, 2005; Borchard et al., 2011), and are consistent with N limitation placing a constraint on protein synthesis, while P limitation constrains RNA production (Loladze and Elser, 2011). NH 4 + was the preferred nitrogen source (confirmed by daily measurements of residual NO3 − and NH4 + ) and NO3 − was consumed only after NH4 + had been depleted. "
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    ABSTRACT: Limitation of marine primary production by the availability of nitrogen or phosphorus is common. Emiliania huxleyi, a ubiquitous phytoplankter that plays key roles in primary production, calcium carbonate precipitation and production of dimethyl sulphide, often blooms in mid-latitude at the beginning of summer when inorganic nutrient concentrations are low. To understand physiological mechanisms that allow such blooms, we examined how the proteome of E. huxylei (strain 1516) responds to N- and P-limitation. We observed modest changes in much of the proteome despite large physiological changes (e.g. cellular biomass, C, N and P) associated with nutrient-limitation of growth rate. Acclimation to nutrient limitation did however involve significant increases in abundances of transporters for ammonium and nitrate under N-limitation and for phosphate under P-limitation. More notable were large increases in proteins involved in acquisition of organic forms of N and P, including urea and amino acid/polyamine transporters and numerous C-N hydrolases under N-limitation and a large up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase under P-limitation. This highly targeted reorganisation of the proteome towards scavenging organic forms of macronutrients gives unique insight into the molecular mechanisms that underpin how E. huxleyi has found its niche to bloom in surface waters depleted of inorganic nutrients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Microbiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.12957 · 6.20 Impact Factor
    • "Combined effects of nutrient levels and CO 2 have been reported in many studies. For example, photosynthetic carbon fixation of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was enhanced under high light and low nitrogen conditions when the seawater CO 2 concentration was raised to 2000 µatm (Leonardos and Geider, 2005). However, increased seawater CO 2 concentration also showed antagonistic effects with iron in modulating (down-or up-regulating) primary production of marine phytoplankton in the Gulf of Alaska (a nutrient-replete but low-chlorophyll area) (Hopkinson et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that ocean acidification (OA) will interact with other environmental factors to influence the overall impact of global change on biological systems. Accordingly we investigated the influence of nitrogen limitation and OA on the physiology of diatoms by growing the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin under elevated (1000 μatm; high CO2 – HC) or ambient (390 μatm; low CO2 – LC) levels of CO2 with replete (110 μmol L−1; high nitrate – HN) or reduced (10 μmol L−1; low nitrate – LN) levels of NO3- and subjecting the cells to solar radiation with or without UV irradiance to determine their susceptibility to UV radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm). Our results indicate that OA and UVB induced significantly higher inhibition of both the photosynthetic rate and quantum yield under LN than under HN conditions. UVA or/and UVB increased the cells' non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) regardless of the CO2 levels. Under LN and OA conditions, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were enhanced, along with the highest sensitivity to UVB and the lowest ratio of repair to damage of PSII. HC-grown cells showed a faster recovery rate of yield under HN but not under LN conditions. We conclude therefore that nutrient limitation makes cells more prone to the deleterious effects of UV radiation and that HC conditions (ocean acidification) exacerbate this effect. The finding that nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance of the diatom P. tricornutum implies that ocean primary production and the marine biological C pump will be affected by OA under multiple stressors.
    Biogeosciences 04/2015; 12(8):2383-2393. DOI:10.5194/bg-12-2383-2015 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, chem ostats enable studies of cell physiology and element composition under constant nutrient-limited growth. Few chemostat experiments with phytoplankton at different pCO 2 have been conducted previously (Sciandra et al. 2003a, Leonardos & Geider 2005, Borchard et al. 2011, Borchard & Engel 2012). Interestingly, these studies often showed the largest response to CO 2 during transient phases, i.e. either when transitioning from low to high pCO 2 (Sciandra et al. 2003a, Leonardos & Geider 2005) or during the initial transition from the batch to the dilution phase (Borchard et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of CO2 concentration on elemental composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were studied in phosphorus-limited, continuous cultures that were acclimated to experimental conditions for 30 days prior to the first sampling. We determined phytoplankton and bacterial cell numbers, nutrients, particulate components like organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (PIC), total nitrogen (PN), organic phosphorus (POP), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), in addition to carbonate system parameters at CO2 levels of 180, 380 and 750 μatm. No significant difference between treatments was observed for any of the measured variables during repeated sampling over a 14-day period. We considered several factors, i.e. light, nutrients, carbon overconsumption and transient vs. steady-state growth that might lead to these results. We suggest that the absence of a clear CO2 effect during this study does not necessarily imply the absence of an effect in nature. Instead, the sensitivity of the cell towards environmental stressors such as CO2 may vary depending on whether growth conditions are transient or sufficiently stable to allow for optimal allocation of energy and resources. We tested this idea on previously published data sets where PIC and POC divided by the corresponding cell abundance of E. huxleyi at various pCO2 levels and growth rates were available.
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 07/2014; 507. DOI:10.3354/meps10824 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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