Cell cycle regulation of Rho signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulation by Rho GTPases are essential to maintain cell shape, to allow cell motility and are also critical during cell cycle progression and mitosis. Rho GTPases and their effectors are involved in cell rounding at mitosis onset, in chromosomes alignment and are required for contraction of the actomyosin ring that separates daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Recent studies have revealed how a number of nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases during these processes. This review will focus on how the cell cycle machinery, in turn, regulates expression of proteins in the Rho signaling pathways through transcriptional activation, ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation and modulates their activity through phosphorylation by mitotic kinases.
Article: Expression profile of RhoGTPases and RhoGEFs during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis: identification of essential genes in osteoclasts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: RhoGTPases regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics, a key element in osteoclast biology. We identified three novel genes induced during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis among RhoGTPases and their exchange factors that are essential in osteoclast biology. During the process of differentiation, adhesion to the bone matrix or osteolysis, the actin cytoskeleton of osteoclasts undergoes profound reorganization. RhoGTPases are key regulators of actin dynamics. They control cell adhesion, migration, and morphology through their action on actin cytoskeleton. In mice, there are 18 low molecular weight RhoGTPases. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors: the RhoGEFs. There are 76 RhoGEFs in mice: 65 belong to the Dbl family and 11 to the CZH family. To identify novel genes among RhoGTPases and RhoGEFs important in osteoclasts, we established the expression profiles of the complete families of RhoGTPases and RhoGEFs during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. The RAW264.7 cell line, mouse bone marrow macrophages, and hematopoietic stem cells were used as precursors for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Gene arrays and real-time quantitative PCR analyses were performed to establish the transcription profiles of RhoGTPase and RhoGEF genes during differentiation. Small hairpin RNA was used to knock down genes of interest. Of the 18 RhoGTPases and 76 RhoGEFs, the expression of three genes was upregulated by RANKL: the RhoGTPase RhoU/Wrch1, the Dbl family exchange factor Arhgef8/Net1, and the CZH family exchange factor Dock5. The inductions were observed in gene array and real-time quantitative PCR experiments performed in RAW264.7 cells. They were further confirmed in bone marrow macrophages and hematopoietic stem cells. Silencing of Wrch1 and Arhgef8 expression severely inhibited differentiation and affected osteoclast morphology. Dock5 suppression was lethal in osteoclast precursors while having no effect in fibroblasts. We identified three genes among RhoGTPase signaling pathways that are upregulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. These genes are novel essential actors in osteoclasts, most likely through the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10/2006; 21(9):1387-98. · 6.37 Impact Factor
Article: Phosphorylation of the cytokinesis regulator ECT2 at G2/M phase stimulates association of the mitotic kinase Plk1 and accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The epithelial cell transforming gene 2 (ECT2) protooncogene encodes a Rho exchange factor, and regulates cytokinesis. ECT2 is phosphorylated in G2/M phases, but its role in the biological function is not known. Here we show that two mitotic kinases, Cdk1 and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), phosphorylate ECT2 in vitro. We identified an in vitro Cdk1 phosphorylation site (T412) in ECT2, which comprises a consensus phosphospecific-binding module for the Plk1 polo-box domain (PBD). Endogenous ECT2 in mitotic cells strongly associated with Plk1 PBD, and this binding was inhibited by phosphatase treatment. A phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of ECT2, T412A, did not exhibit strong association with Plk1 PBD compared with wild-type (WT) ECT2. Moreover, ECT2 T412A, but not phosphomimic T412D, displayed a diminished accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA compared with WT ECT2, suggesting that phosphorylation of Thr-412 is critical for the catalytic activity of ECT2. Moreover, while overexpression of WT ECT2 or the T412D mutant caused cortical hyperactivity in U2OS cells during cell division, this activity was not observed in cells expressing ECT2 T412A. These results suggest that ECT2 is regulated by Cdk1 and Plk1 in concert.Oncogene 03/2006; 25(6):827-37. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic cell division cycle is characterized by a sequence of orderly and highly regulated events resulting in the duplication and separation of all cellular material into two newly formed daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) drives this cycle. To gain further insight into how phosphorylation regulates the cell cycle, we sought to identify proteins whose phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated. Using stable isotope labeling along with a two-step strategy for phosphopeptide enrichment and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry, we examined protein phosphorylation in a human cell line arrested in the G(1) and mitotic phases of the cell cycle. We report the identification of >14,000 different phosphorylation events, more than half of which, to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature, along with relative quantitative data for the majority of these sites. We observed >1,000 proteins with increased phosphorylation in mitosis including many known cell cycle regulators. The majority of sites on regulated phosphopeptides lie in [S/T]P motifs, the minimum required sequence for CDKs, suggesting that many of the proteins may be CDK substrates. Analysis of non-proline site-containing phosphopeptides identified two unique motifs that suggest there are at least two undiscovered mitotic kinases.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2008; 105(31):10762-7. · 9.68 Impact Factor