Tracheostomy practice in adults with acute respiratory failure
ABSTRACT : Tracheostomy remains one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in adults with acute respiratory failure and identifies a patient cohort which is among the most resource-intensive to provide care. The objective of this concise definitive review is the synthesis of current knowledge regarding tracheostomy practice in this context.
: Peer-reviewed, English language publications pertaining to tracheostomy indications, timing, technique, and management.
: Contemporary literature concerning tracheostomy use predominately focuses on two aspects: procedure timing and technical considerations. Three recent, large, randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate an effect of "early" tracheostomy on mortality, infectious complications, intensive care unit, or hospital length of stay. Relative to continued translaryngeal intubation, tracheostomy was associated with less sedation use and earlier mobility. An accumulating body of literature suggests that, relative to conventional surgical methods, percutaneous dilational techniques are advantageous with respect to cost and complication profile. Literature addressing management following tracheostomy placement consists largely of single institution, nonrandomized reports, limiting the ability to formulate specific recommendations regarding this aspect of care.
: In patients who otherwise lack indication for surgical airway, clinicians should defer tracheostomy placement for at least 2 wks following the onset of acute respiratory failure to insure need for ongoing ventilatory support. Subpopulations of patients (e.g., those with acute neurological injury or stroke) may benefit from earlier tracheostomy. Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy should be considered the preferred technique for this intervention in the appropriately selected individual. Future investigations should include efforts to optimize post-tracheostomy management and to quantify tracheostomy effects on patient-centric outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background. The optimal timing of tracheotomy and its impact on weaning from mechanical ventilation in critically ill morbidly obese patients remain controversial. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of morbidly obese subjects (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) or BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) and one or more comorbid conditions) who underwent a tracheotomy between July 2008 and June 2013 at a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical characteristics, rates of nosocomial pneumonia (NP), weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV), and mortality rates were analyzed. Results. A total of 102 subjects (42 men and 60 women) were included; their mean age and BMI were 56.3 ± 15.1 years and 53.3 ± 13.6 kg/m(2), respectively. There was no difference in the rate of NP between groups stratified by successful weaning from MV (P = 0.43). Mortality was significantly higher in those who failed to wean (P = 0.02). A cutoff value of 9 days for the time to tracheotomy provided the best balanced sensitivity (72%) and specificity (59.8%) for predicting NP onset. Rates of NP and total duration of MV were significantly higher in those who had tracheostomy ≥ 9 days (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. The study suggests that tracheotomy in morbidly obese subjects performed within the first 9 days may reduce MV and decrease NP but may not affect hospital mortality.Critical care research and practice 01/2014; 2014:840638. DOI:10.1155/2014/840638
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ABSTRACT: Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in intensive care units. Bedside percutaneous tracheostomy has become an increasingly popular option to standard open tracheostomy. Several contraindications for percutaneous tracheostomy, including an enlarged thyroid isthmus, have been described. However, as experience with this technique has increased, most of the described contraindications appear to be relative rather than absolute, provided the procedure is performed by an experienced practitioner. Herein we present a case of an unavoidable direct puncture of the thyroid isthmus during a percutaneous tracheostomy. The procedure was performed smoothly, and no complications occurred.06/2014; 2(2). DOI:10.1002/rcr2.48
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ABSTRACT: Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) is routinely performed in the intensive care unit with bronchoscopic guidance. Recently, ultrasound (US) has emerged as a new safety adjunct tool to increase the efficacy of PDT. However, the available data are limited to case series without any control group. Hence, a retrospective cohort study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of US-guided PDT compared with bronchoscopy-guided PDT.Journal of Critical Care 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.011 · 2.19 Impact Factor