Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury*
Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, Oakland, California, United StatesCritical care medicine (Impact Factor: 6.31). 07/2012; 40(10):2883-2889. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825bc54d
OBJECTIVES:: In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (NCT00281268), adults with acute lung injury randomized to a conservative vs. liberal fluid management protocol had increased days alive and free of mechanical ventilator support (ventilator-free days). Recruiting sufficient children with acute lung injury into a pediatric trial is challenging. A Bayesian statistical approach relies on the adult trial for the a priori effect estimate, requiring fewer patients. Preparing for a Bayesian pediatric trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, we aimed to: 1) identify an inverse association between fluid balance and ventilator-free days; and 2) determine if fluid balance over time is more similar to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal or conservative arms. DESIGN:: Multicentered retrospective cohort study. SETTING:: Five pediatric intensive care units. PATIENTS:: Mechanically ventilated children (age ≥1 month to <18 yrs) with acute lung injury admitted in 2007-2010. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Fluid intake, output, and net fluid balance were collected on days 1-7 in 168 children with acute lung injury (median age 3 yrs, median PaO2/FIO2 138) and weight-adjusted (mL/kg). Using multivariable linear regression to adjust for age, gender, race, admission day illness severity, PaO2/FIO2, and vasopressor use, increasing cumulative fluid balance (mL/kg) on day 3 was associated with fewer ventilator-free days (p = .02). Adjusted for weight, daily fluid balance on days 1-3 and cumulative fluid balance on days 1-7 were higher in these children compared to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial conservative arm (p < .001, each day) and was similar to adults in the liberal arm. CONCLUSIONS:: Increasing fluid balance on day 3 in children with acute lung injury at these centers is independently associated with fewer ventilator-free days. Our findings and the similarity of fluid balance patterns in our cohort to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal arm demonstrate the need to determine whether a conservative fluid management strategy improves clinical outcomes in children with acute lung injury and support a Bayesian trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.
- Critical care medicine 10/2012; 40(10):2918-20. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31826563b6 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a growing appreciation for the role that acute kidney injury (AKI) plays in the propagation of critical illness. In children, AKI is not only an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with especially negative outcomes when concurrent with acute lung injury (ALI). Experimental data provide evidence that kidney-lung crosstalk occurs and can be bidirectionally deleterious, although details of the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the AKI-ALI interaction remain incomplete. Clinically, ALI, and the subsequent clinical interventions used to stabilize gas exchange, carry consequences for the homeostasis of kidney function. Meanwhile, AKI negatively affects lung physiology significantly by altering the homeostasis of fluid balance, acid-base balance, and vascular tone. Experimental AKI research supports an "endocrine" role for the kidney, triggering a cascade of extra-renal inflammatory responses affecting lung homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of kidney-lung crosstalk, the multiple pathways by which AKI affects kidney-lung homeostasis, and discuss how these phenomena may be unique in critically ill children. Understanding how AKI may affect a "balance of communication" that exists between the kidneys and the lungs is requisite when managing critically ill children, in whom imbalance is the norm.Pediatric Nephrology 01/2013; 28(12). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2386-3 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluid management has a major impact on the duration, severity and outcome of critical illness. The overall strategy for the acutely ill child should be biphasic. Aggressive volume expansion to support tissue oxygen delivery as part of early goal-directed resuscitation algorithms for shock-especially septic shock-has been associated with dramatic improvements in outcome. Recent data suggest that the cost-benefit of aggressive fluid resuscitation may be more complex than previously thought, and may depend on case-mix and the availability of intensive care. After the resuscitation phase, critically ill children tend to retain free water while having reduced insensible losses. Fluid regimens that limit or avoid positive fluid balance are associated with a reduced length of hospital stay and fewer complications. Identifying the point at which patients change from the 'early shock' pattern to the later 'chronic critical illness' pattern remains a major challenge. Very little data are available on the choice of fluids, and most of the information that is available arises from studies of critically ill adults. There is therefore an urgent need for high-quality trials of both resuscitation and maintenance fluid regimens in critically ill children.Pediatric Nephrology 01/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1007/s00467-013-2412-0 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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