Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury*
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:: In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (NCT00281268), adults with acute lung injury randomized to a conservative vs. liberal fluid management protocol had increased days alive and free of mechanical ventilator support (ventilator-free days). Recruiting sufficient children with acute lung injury into a pediatric trial is challenging. A Bayesian statistical approach relies on the adult trial for the a priori effect estimate, requiring fewer patients. Preparing for a Bayesian pediatric trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, we aimed to: 1) identify an inverse association between fluid balance and ventilator-free days; and 2) determine if fluid balance over time is more similar to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal or conservative arms. DESIGN:: Multicentered retrospective cohort study. SETTING:: Five pediatric intensive care units. PATIENTS:: Mechanically ventilated children (age ≥1 month to <18 yrs) with acute lung injury admitted in 2007-2010. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Fluid intake, output, and net fluid balance were collected on days 1-7 in 168 children with acute lung injury (median age 3 yrs, median PaO2/FIO2 138) and weight-adjusted (mL/kg). Using multivariable linear regression to adjust for age, gender, race, admission day illness severity, PaO2/FIO2, and vasopressor use, increasing cumulative fluid balance (mL/kg) on day 3 was associated with fewer ventilator-free days (p = .02). Adjusted for weight, daily fluid balance on days 1-3 and cumulative fluid balance on days 1-7 were higher in these children compared to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial conservative arm (p < .001, each day) and was similar to adults in the liberal arm. CONCLUSIONS:: Increasing fluid balance on day 3 in children with acute lung injury at these centers is independently associated with fewer ventilator-free days. Our findings and the similarity of fluid balance patterns in our cohort to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal arm demonstrate the need to determine whether a conservative fluid management strategy improves clinical outcomes in children with acute lung injury and support a Bayesian trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.
SourceAvailable from: Naomi Ketharanathan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Fluid resuscitation is integral to resuscitation guidelines and critical care. However, fluid overload (FO) yields increased morbidity. Methods: Prospective observational study of Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital pediatric intensive care unit admissions (February to March 2013). FO % = (fluid in minus fluid out) [liters]/weight [kg] × 100%. Primary outcomes: FO ≥ 10%, 28 day mortality. Results: Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age: 9.5 (2.0-39.0) months, median (IQR) admission weight: 7.9 (3.6-13.7) kg. Median (IQR) FO with admission weight: 3.5 (2.1-4.9)%; three patients had FO ≥ 10%. The 28 day mortality was 10% (n = 10). Patients who died had higher mean (IQR) FO using admission weight [4.9 (2.9-9.3)% vs. 3.4 (1.9-4.8)%; p = 0.04]. Conclusions: Low FO ≥ 10% prevalence with 28 day mortality 10%. Higher FO% with admission weight associated with mortality (p = 0.04). We advocate further investigation of FO% as a simple bedside tool.Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 08/2014; 60(6). DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmu041 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monitoring fluid balance (FB) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is crucial to assess fluid overload. Pediatric intensivists (PI) frequently use the fluid intake minus output (FIMO) or FIMO with adjustments for insensible fluid loss (AFIMO). However, the accuracy of FIMO/AFIMO has never been tested in critically ill children. We designed a prospective, monocentric cohort study in a PICU of a university hospital. Body weight (BW) was measured in all children consecutively admitted to PICU and 24 h later. Every 12 h, the nurses calculated FIMO/AFIMO. Time burden and convenience of each procedure (median; [interquartile range]) were recorded and compared using a Wilcoxon test. Data were analysed using linear regression (r (2) coefficient) and the Bland-Altman plot (mean difference ± standard deviation; absolute mean difference), with a 300-ml variation of FB considered clinically relevant. Sixty consecutive patients, 304-day [39-1,565] old with admission weight of 9.2 kg [4.4-17.8] were included. Although correlations between FIMO/AFIMO and BW changes (BWC) were strong (r (2) FIMO = 0.63, p < 0.0001 and r (2) AFIMO = 0.72, p < 0.0001, respectively), agreement between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC were over 300 mL (-0.305 ± 0.451, 0.382 L and -0.007 ± 0.447, 0.302 L, respectively). No significant differences were noted between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC measurements for time burden (5 min [5-10] vs. 5 min [5-10], p = 0.84) or convenience (1 min [1-2] vs. 1 min [0-1.3], p = 0.13).Conclusion: Because agreement between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC is poor during the first 24 h after admission into PICU, PIs may reserve FIMO/AFIMO to monitor FB in patients with absolute contraindications of BW measurements.European Journal of Pediatrics 07/2014; 174(1). DOI:10.1007/s00431-014-2372-9 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Standard treatment practice for the hypotensive patient with poor tissue perfusion is rapid volume resuscitation; in some scenarios, such as septic shock, this is performed with targeted goal-directed endpoints within 6 h of presentation. As a result, patients often develop significant positive fluid accumulation, which has been associated with poor outcomes above certain thresholds. Methods. The aim of the current paper is to provide guidance for active pharmacological fluid management in the patient with, or at risk for, clinically significant positive fluid balance from either resuscitation for hypovolaemic shock or acute decompensated heart failure. Results. We develop rationale for pharmacological fluid management targets (prevention of worsening fluid accumulation, achievement of slow vs rapid net negative fluid balance) in the context of phases of critical illness provided in the earlier Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative 12 papers.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 09/2014; 113(5). DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu299 · 4.35 Impact Factor