Biocompatibility of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT In this review, recent reports on the biocompatibility of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are reviewed, with special emphasis being paid to the correlations between MSNs' structural and compositional features and their biological effects on various cells and tissues. First, the different synthetic routes used to produce the most common types of MSNs and the various methods employed to functionalize their surfaces are discussed. This is, however, done only briefly because of the focus of the review being the biocompatibility of the materials. Similarly, the biological applications of MSNs in areas such as drug and gene delivery, biocatalysis, bioimaging, and biosensing are briefly introduced. Many examples have also been mentioned about the biological applications of MSNs while discussing the materials' biocompatibility. The cytotoxicity of different types of MSNs and the effects of their various structural characteristics on their biological activities, which are the focus of this review, are then described in detail. In addition, synthetic strategies developed to reduce or eliminate any possible negative biological effects associated with MSNs or to improve their biocompatibility, as necessary, are illustrated. At the same time, recent reports on the interactions between MSNs and various in vivo or in vitro biological systems, plus our opinions and remarks on what the future may hold for this field, are included.
- SourceAvailable from: Jie NaBioNanoScience. 09/2014; 4(3):288-300.
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ABSTRACT: Research on mesoporous materials for biomedical and biological applications has experienced an outstanding increase during recent years. This review with ca. 420 references provides an overview of mesoporous structures covering synthesis and bioapplications. Various methods of mesoporous material preparation and modification are discussed as controlled synthesis of these molecular sieves has great impact on their properties and applications. In the area of bioapplications, mesoporous materials offer the potential for drug delivery, bioimaging, regenerative medicine, optical and electrochemical biosensing, enzyme immobilization, biomolecule sorption and separation and many others. We also discuss the cytotoxicity aspects of mesoporous structures being of crucial importance for successful application of these novel tools in the biomedical field. Future prospects of mesoporous materials have been also briefly discussed. We believe that the present review will serve as a comprehensive guide for scientists in the area of biosciences giving the background in regard to mesoporous materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Materials Science and Engineering C 04/2015; 49. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as key regulators in gene expression networks, have participated in many biological processes, including cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, indicative of potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To tackle the low abundance of miRNAs in single cell, we have developed programmable nanodevices with MNAzymes to realize stringent recognition and in situ amplification of intracellular miRNAs for multiplexed detection and controlled drug release. As a proof of concept, miR-21 and miR-145, respectively up- and down-expressed in most tumor tissues, were selected as endogenous cancer indicators and therapy triggers to test the efficacy of the photothermal nanodevices. The sequence programmability and specificity of MNAzyme motifs enabled the fluorescent turn-on probes not only to sensitively profile the distributions of miR-21/miR-145 in cell lysates of HeLa, HL-60 and NIH 3T3 (9632/0, 14147/0, 2047/421 copies per cell, respectively), but also to visualize trace amounts of miRNAs in single cell, allowing logic operation for graded cancer risk assessment and dynamic monitoring of therapy response by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Furthermore, through general molecular design, the MNAzyme motifs could serve as three-dimensional gatekeepers to lock the doxorubicin inside the nanocarriers, which were exclusively internalized into the target tumor cells via aptamer-guided recognition and re-opened by the endogenous miRNAs, where the drug release rates could be spatial-temporally controlled by the modulation of miRNA expression. Integrated with miRNA profiling techniques, the designed nanodevices can provide general strategy for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and combination treatment with chemotherapy and gene therapy.ACS Nano 12/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor