Biocompatibility of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
ABSTRACT In this review, recent reports on the biocompatibility of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are reviewed, with special emphasis being paid to the correlations between MSNs' structural and compositional features and their biological effects on various cells and tissues. First, the different synthetic routes used to produce the most common types of MSNs and the various methods employed to functionalize their surfaces are discussed. This is, however, done only briefly because of the focus of the review being the biocompatibility of the materials. Similarly, the biological applications of MSNs in areas such as drug and gene delivery, biocatalysis, bioimaging, and biosensing are briefly introduced. Many examples have also been mentioned about the biological applications of MSNs while discussing the materials' biocompatibility. The cytotoxicity of different types of MSNs and the effects of their various structural characteristics on their biological activities, which are the focus of this review, are then described in detail. In addition, synthetic strategies developed to reduce or eliminate any possible negative biological effects associated with MSNs or to improve their biocompatibility, as necessary, are illustrated. At the same time, recent reports on the interactions between MSNs and various in vivo or in vitro biological systems, plus our opinions and remarks on what the future may hold for this field, are included.
SourceAvailable from: Jie Na09/2014; 4(3):288-300. DOI:10.1007/s12668-014-0139-4
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ABSTRACT: Research on mesoporous materials for biomedical and biological applications has experienced an outstanding increase during recent years. This review with ca. 420 references provides an overview of mesoporous structures covering synthesis and bioapplications. Various methods of mesoporous material preparation and modification are discussed as controlled synthesis of these molecular sieves has great impact on their properties and applications. In the area of bioapplications, mesoporous materials offer the potential for drug delivery, bioimaging, regenerative medicine, optical and electrochemical biosensing, enzyme immobilization, biomolecule sorption and separation and many others. We also discuss the cytotoxicity aspects of mesoporous structures being of crucial importance for successful application of these novel tools in the biomedical field. Future prospects of mesoporous materials have been also briefly discussed. We believe that the present review will serve as a comprehensive guide for scientists in the area of biosciences giving the background in regard to mesoporous materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Materials Science and Engineering C 04/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.079 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanoporous silica materials have become a prominent novel class of biomaterials which are typically applied as nanoparticles or thin films. Their large surface area combined with the rich surface chemistry of amorphous silica affords the possibility to equip this material with variable functionalities, also with several different ones on the same particle or coating. Although many studies have shown that nanoporous silica is apparently non-toxic and basically biocompatible, any surface modification may change the surface properties considerably and, therefore, the modified materials should be checked for their biocompatibility at every step. Here we report on different silane-based functionalization strategies, firstly a conventional succinic anhydride-based linker system and, secondly, copper-catalyzed click chemistry, to bind polysialic acid, a polysaccharide important in neurogenesis, onto nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NPSNPs) of MCM-41 type. At each of the different modification steps, the materials are characterized by cell culture experiments. The results show that polysialic acid can be immobilized on the surface of NPSNPs by using different strategies. The cell culture experiments show that the kind of surface immobilization has a strong influence on the toxicity of the material versus the cells. Whereas most modifications appear inoffensive, NPSNPs modified by click reactions are toxic, probably due to residues of the Cu catalyst used in these reactions.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 03/2015; 26(3):5409. DOI:10.1007/s10856-015-5409-3 · 2.14 Impact Factor