Article

Autoimmune diseases and infections as risk factors for schizophrenia

National Center for Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.31). 07/2012; 1262(1):56-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06638.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunological hypotheses have become increasingly prominent when studying the etiology of schizophrenia. Autoimmune diseases, and especially the number of infections requiring hospitalization, have been identified as significant risk factors for schizophrenia in a dose-response relationship, which seem compatible with an immunological hypothesis for subgroups of patients with schizophrenia. Inflammation and infections may affect the brain through many different pathways that are not necessarily mutually exclusive and can possibly increase the risk of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals. However, the findings could also be an epiphenomenon and not causal, due to, for instance, common genetic vulnerability, which could be supported by the observations of an increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases and infections in parents of patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, autoimmune diseases and infections should be considered in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia symptoms, and further research is needed of the immune system's possible contributing pathogenic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia.

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    • "Several lines of evidence suggest that infection, inflammation and autoimmunity may contribute to the aetiology of schizophrenia (Benros et al., 2011, 2012; Fillman et al., 2013), and in a recent study, we associated schizophrenia with MBL and mannan-binding lectinassociated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), two key components of the lectin pathway of complement activation (Foldager et al., 2012). The aetiology of both bipolar (Leboyer et al., 2012) and panic respectively anxiety disorder (Salazar et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2013) is suspected to be associated with an inflammatory state, and autoimmune processes and infections may precede bipolar Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jad "
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    ABSTRACT: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) represent important arms of the innate immune system, and different deficiencies may result in infections or autoimmune diseases. Both bipolar and panic disorders are associated with increased inflammatory response, infections and mutual comorbidity. However, associations with MBL, MASP-2 or the gene, MBL2, coding for MBL, have not been investigated thoroughly.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2014; 164C:148-154. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.017 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and some investigators have proposed that immune abnormalities may be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia (Muller and Schwarz 2006; Benros et al. 2012; Mansur et al. 2012; Na et al. 2014; Richard and Brahm 2012; Altamura et al. 2014). Cytokines function as chemical messengers between immune cells and have numerous important functions in immune regulation. "
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    • "Conversely, a national case-registry based study of SZ patients from Taiwan indicated increased prevalence of auto-immune diseases including Graves' disease, psoriasis, celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and hypersensitivity vasculitis [Chen et al., 2012]. An increased prevalence of auto-immune disorders has also been observed among non-psychotic relatives of patients with SZ [Eaton et al., 2010; Benros et al., 2012]. On the other hand, patients with SZ have reduced prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, another auto-immune disease [Chen et al., 2012]. "
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