Ablation of Atrial Flutter in Severe Pulmonary Hypertension:: Pushing the Outside of the Envelope.
From the New England Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, the Cardiovascular Center, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 06/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8167.2012.02401.x
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ABSTRACT: Endocardial mapping has suggested that common atrial flutter (AF) is based on right atrial reentry surrounding the inferior vena cava (IVC). The isthmus between the IVC and the tricuspid valve (TV) appears essential to close the circuit. To test this hypothesis, radiofrequency was applied to the IVC-TV isthmus, with catheter electrodes, in 9 patients with AF. Mapping confirmed a right atrial circuit surrounding the IVC in all. In 4 patients another type of AF was induced that followed the circuit in the opposite direction. Radiofrequency interrupted AF in all patients. Multiple endocardial recordings showed that interruption was due to activation block at the point of application. Radiofrequency produced very brief or sustained, atrial fibrillation in 2 patients, which resulted in sinus rhythm. AF recurred in 4 patients with the same activation pattern and was interrupted again with radiofrequency in the IVC-TV isthmus in 3. AF was noninducible in 7 patients after 1 to 4 sessions. AF-free periods of 2 to 18 months without drugs were observed after radiofrequency, but 2 patients had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. These results confirm that the IVC-TV isthmus is an essential part of the AF circuit. Ablation of this area may be of therapeutic value, but technical improvements are needed. Long-term efficacy of the procedure is uncertain.The American Journal of Cardiology 04/1993; 71(8):705-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the factors associated with long-term survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) treated with continuous epoprostenol infusion. Epoprostenol improves survival in patients with PPH in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV. However, some patients do not benefit from epoprostenol and must be considered for lung transplantation. The best timing for listing these patients on a lung transplantation program is currently unknown. Between December 1992 and January 2001, 178 patients with PPH in NYHA functional class III or IV were treated with epoprostenol. The 6-min walk test (WT) and right-sided heart catheterization were performed at baseline, after three months on epoprostenol and thereafter once a year. Overall survival rates at one, two, three, and five years were 85%, 70%, 63%, and 55%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the baseline variables associated with a poor outcome were a history of right-sided heart failure, NYHA functional class IV, 6-min WT <or=250 m (median value), right atrial pressure >or=12 mm Hg, and mean pulmonary artery pressure <65 mm Hg. On multivariate analysis, including both baseline variables and those measured after three months on epoprostenol, a history of right-sided heart failure, persistence of NYHA functional class III or IV at three months, and the absence of a fall in total pulmonary resistance of >30%, relative to baseline, were associated with poor survival. Survival of patients with PPH treated with epoprostenol depends on the severity at baseline, as well as the three-month response to therapy. These findings suggest that lung transplantation should be considered in a subset of patients who remain in NYHA functional class III or IV or in those who cannot achieve a significant hemodynamic improvement after three months of epoprostenol therapy, or both.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2002; 40(4):780-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
Article: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS), endorsed by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).European Heart Journal 09/2009; 30(20):2493-537. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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