Effect of Chelerythrine Against Endotoxic Shock in Mice and Its Modulation of Inflammatory Mediators in Peritoneal Macrophages Through the Modulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway.
ABSTRACT A quaternary benzo [c] alkaloid chelerythrine (CHE), which is a traditional herbal prescription, has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. To gain insight into the anti-inflammatory effect and molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of CHE, we used experimentally induced mice endotoxic shock moled and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory function of CHE. CHE displayed significant anti-inflammatory effects in experimentally induced mice endotoxic shock model in vivo through inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level and nitric oxide (NO) production in serum. Additionally, our data suggest that CHE treatment inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α level and NO production in LPS-induced murine peritoneal macrophages through selective inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation. Moreover, the effects of CHE on NO and cytokine TNF-α production can possibly be explained by the role of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in the regulation of inflammatory mediators expression.
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ABSTRACT: Acute inflammation normally resolves by mechanisms that have remained somewhat elusive. Emerging evidence now suggests that an active, coordinated program of resolution initiates in the first few hours after an inflammatory response begins. After entering tissues, granulocytes promote the switch of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins and leukotrienes to lipoxins, which initiate the termination sequence. Neutrophil recruitment thus ceases and programmed death by apoptosis is engaged. These events coincide with the biosynthesis, from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, of resolvins and protectins, which critically shorten the period of neutrophil infiltration by initiating apoptosis. Consequently, apoptotic neutrophils undergo phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to neutrophil clearance and release of anti-inflammatory and reparative cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta1. The anti-inflammatory program ends with the departure of macrophages through the lymphatics. Understanding these and further details of the mechanism required for inflammation resolution may underpin the development of drugs that can resolve inflammatory processes in directed and controlled ways.Nature Immunology 01/2006; 6(12):1191-7. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability to induce TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis in vivo in predisease lupus-prone NZM2410 and derived B6.NZM congenic mouse strains. An endotoxicosis model that utilizes LPS and d-galactosamine to induce mortality by TNFalpha/TNFR1-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis was used to assess TNFalpha production, apoptotic signaling, and effects on the production of IL-6 and IL-10. NZM2410 was found to be resistant to endotoxicosis and to produce significantly less TNFalpha-induced IL-6 and IL-10. At low doses of LPS, partial resistance was associated with the Tnfa(w) allele. At higher doses of LPS, partial resistance cosegregated with lupus-susceptibility loci and functionally mapped downstream of caspase 3. Additional partial resistance in NZM2410 was also found upstream of FADD. These results demonstrate the existence of multiple defects in the TNFalpha/TNFR1 signaling pathway in the NZM2410 mouse and their relevance to lupus pathogenesis is discussed.Clinical Immunology 03/2004; 110(2):124-33. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a dual specificity phosphatase that is overexpressed in many human tumors and can protect cells from apoptosis caused by DNA-damaging agents or cellular stress. Small molecule inhibitors of MKP-1 have not been reported, in part because of the lack of structural guidance for inhibitor design and definitive assays for MKP-1 inhibition in intact cells. Herein we have exploited a high content chemical complementation assay to analyze a diverse collection of pure natural products for cellular MKP-1 inhibition. Using two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics, we identified sanguinarine, a plant alkaloid with known antibiotic and antitumor activity but no primary cellular target, as a potent and selective inhibitor of MKP-1. Sanguinarine inhibited cellular MKP-1 with an IC50 of 10 microM and showed selectivity for MKP-1 over MKP-3. Sanguinarine also inhibited MKP-1 and the MKP-1 like phosphatase, MKP-L, in vitro with IC50 values of 17.3 and 12.5 microM, respectively, and showed 5-10-fold selectivity for MKP-3 and MKP-1 over VH-1-related phosphatase, Cdc25B2, or protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. In a human tumor cell line with high MKP-1 levels, sanguinarine caused enhanced ERK and JNK/SAPK phosphorylation. A close congener of sanguinarine, chelerythrine, also inhibited MKP-1 in vitro and in whole cells, and activated ERK and JNK/SAPK. In contrast, sanguinarine analogs lacking the benzophenanthridine scaffold did not inhibit MKP-1 in vitro or in cells nor did they cause ERK or JNK/SAPK phosphorylation. These data illustrate the utility of a chemical complementation assay linked with multiparameter high content cellular screening.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2005; 280(19):19078-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor