[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable therapeutic option for patients with prostate cancer. There are multiple potential strategies that use the immune system, including therapeutic cancer vaccines that are designed to stimulate immune cells to target antigens expressed by cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T is a vaccine currently approved for the treatment of minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer, whereas the vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune-checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab are in phase III testing. Although there are no short-term changes in disease progression or available biomarkers to assess response, these agents appear to improve survival. One hypothesis suggests that this apparent paradox can be explained by the growth-moderating effects of these treatments, which do not cause tumor size to diminish, but rather stall or slow their growth rate over time. For this reason, the use of immunotherapy earlier in the disease process is being investigated. Another approach is to block immune-regulatory mechanisms mediated by the molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1. Additional future strategies will combine immunotherapy with other standard therapies, potentially enhancing the latter's clinical impact and thereby improving both time to progression and overall survival due to the combined effects of both treatments. Prospective trials are currently evaluating these hypotheses and will ultimately serve to optimize immunotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.
The Cancer Journal 01/2013; 19(1):50-8. DOI:10.1097/PPO.0b013e31828160a9 · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2004, the chemotherapy agent docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Although it has taken almost a decade, significant new advances have been made in this area, including the clinical development of modern hormonal therapies, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide, and immunotherapies, such as sipuleucel-T, all of which have improved survival in metastatic prostate cancer. These agents have not only provided new therapeutic options for patients with advanced disease, they have also spurred research in both androgen receptor-targeting therapy and immunotherapy. Future trials will focus on the optimal sequence of these and other emerging therapies, with the aim of using these treatments earlier in the disease course (including the adjuvant setting) to enhance clinical benefit and potentially increase the cure rate for prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior to 2010, docetaxel was the standard option for chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Today, the picture is vastly different: several additional therapies have each demonstrated a survival benefit such that we now have chemotherapy (cabazitaxel), androgen suppressive agents (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), a cellular vaccine (sipuleucel-T) and radium-233 (for symptomatic bone metastases). With several other agents in the pipeline for late-stage disease, the future looks promising for mCRPC. As the available data are not able to inform as to the optimum sequencing of therapy, this remains a challenge. This paper draws on insights from published and ongoing clinical studies to provide a practical patient-focused approach to maximize the benefits of the current therapeutic armamentarium. Preliminary sequencing suggestions are made based on clinical trial criteria. But until more data become available, clinical gestalt, experience, cost and individual patient preferences will continue to drive choices.
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