A Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Larazotide Acetate to Prevent the Activation of Celiac Disease During Gluten Challenge

Celiac Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 07/2012; 107(10):1554-62. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2012.211
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVES: In patients with celiac disease, enteropathy is caused by the entry of gluten peptides into the lamina propria of the intestine, in which their immunogenicity is potentiated by tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and T-helper type 1–mediated immune responses are triggered. Tight junction disassembly and paracellular permeability are believed to have an important role in the transport of gluten peptides to the lamina propria. Larazotide acetate is a tight-junction regulator peptide that, in vitro, prevents the opening of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of larazotide acetate in protecting against gluten-induced intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptom severity in patients with celiac disease.

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    • "Conversely, the same test was not a reliable instrument to detect asymptomatic CD subjects in a mass screening project [29]. Furthermore, IPT did not perform optimally in two recent trials of larazotide acetate in measuring changes in intestinal permeability after a 14-day [30] or 6-week [31] gluten challenge. "
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    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 08/2012; 10(10):1096-100. DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2012.08.012 · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten ingestion, is managed by a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is difficult for many patients. Larazotide acetate is a first-in-class oral peptide that prevents tight junction opening, and may reduce gluten uptake and associated sequelae. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of larazotide acetate during gluten challenge. METHODS: This exploratory, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study included 184 patients maintaining a GFD before and during the study. After a GFD run-in, patients were randomised to larazotide acetate (1, 4, or 8 mg three times daily) or placebo and received 2.7 grams of gluten daily for 6 weeks. Outcomes included an experimental biomarker of intestinal permeability, the lactulose-to-mannitol (LAMA) ratio and clinical symptoms assessed by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and anti-transglutaminase antibody levels. RESULTS: No significant differences in LAMA ratios were observed between larazotide acetate and placebo groups. Larazotide acetate 1-mg limited gluten-induced symptoms measured by GSRS (P = 0.002 vs. placebo). Mean ratio of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA levels over baseline was 19.0 in the placebo group compared with 5.78 (P = 0.010), 3.88 (P = 0.005) and 7.72 (P = 0.025) in the larazotide acetate 1-, 4-, and 8-mg groups, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between larazotide acetate and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Larazotide acetate reduced gluten-induced immune reactivity and symptoms in patients with coeliac disease undergoing gluten challenge and was generally well tolerated; however, no significant difference in LAMA ratios between larazotide acetate and placebo was observed. Results and design of this exploratory study can inform the design of future studies of pharmacological interventions in patients with coeliac disease.
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