Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a valuable in vitro model for testing toxicity of chemicals and environmental contaminants including cigarette smoke. Mouse ESCs were acutely or chronically exposed to smoke components, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), or cadmium, an abundant component of CSC, and then evaluated for their self-renewal, apoptosis, DNA damage and telomere function. Acute exposure of ESCs to high dose of CSC or cadmium increased DNA damage and apoptosis. Yet, ESCs exhibited a remarkable capacity to recover following absence of exposure. Chronic exposure of ESCs to low dose of CSC or cadmium resulted in shorter telomeres and DNA damage. Together, acute exposure of ESCs to CSC or cadmium causes immediate cell death and reduces pluripotency, while chronic exposure of ESCs to CSC or cadmium leads to DNA damage and telomere shortening. Notably, a sub-proportion of ESCs during passages is selected to resist to smoke-induced oxidative damage to telomeres.
"Current research suggests that cigarette smoke is a powerful environmental modifier of DNAm (reviewed in (Lee and Pausova 2013)). Cigarette smoke contains a large number of chemicals, such as carcinogens, nicotine and carbon monoxide, that have been shown to modify DNAm in differentiating and dividing cells (Cuozzo et al. 2007; Di et al. 2012; Han et al. 2001; Huang et al. 2012; Mercer et al. 2009; Mortusewicz et al. 2005; Satta et al. 2008; Shahrzad et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth.
Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence.
Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447).
Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence.
Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T, Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193–199; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614
Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2014; 123(2). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408614 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the years, anthropogenic factors have led to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the environment causing various health problems in humans. Although Cd is not a Fenton-like metal, it induces oxidative stress in various animal models via indirect mechanisms. The degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress depends on the dose, duration and frequency of Cd exposure. Also the presence or absence of serum in experimental conditions, type of cells and their antioxidant capacity, as well as the speciation of Cd are important determinants. At the cellular level, the Cd-induced oxidative stress either leads to oxidative damage or activates signal transduction pathways to initiate defence responses. This balance is important on how different organ systems respond to Cd stress and ultimately define the pathological outcome. In this review, we highlight the Cd-induced oxidant/antioxidant status as well as the damage versus signalling scenario in relation to Cd toxicity. Emphasis is addressed to Cd-induced pathologies of major target organs, including a section on cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, attention is paid to Cd-induced oxidative stress in undifferentiated stem cells, which can provide information for future therapies in preventing Cd-induced pathologies.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2013; 14(3):6116-6143. DOI:10.3390/ijms14036116 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases.
Frontiers in Genetics 07/2013; 4:132. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00132
Andrew J Massey, Stephen Stokes, Helen Browne, Nicolas Foloppe, Andreá Fiumana, Simon Scrace, Mandy Fallowfield, Simon Bedford, Paul Webb, Lisa Baker, Mark Christie, Martin J Drysdale, Mike Wood
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