The GRIMS. A psychometric instrument for the assessment of marital discord
ABSTRACT Research in marital therapy has been disadvantaged by the lack of a good, short and recent psychometric questionnaire to objectively assess the state of a marriage for research, demographic and clinical purposes. The Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State (GRIMS) is a companion questionnaire to the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), and concentrates on aspects other than the sexual in a dyadic relationship between two adults living together. It is a 28 item psychometrically constructed inventory designed to produce a single scale along which changes in a marriage may develop as marital therapy progresses. It has been shown to be valid for this purpose, and to have a good reliability.
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ABSTRACT: Suicide is a leading cause of perinatal maternal deaths in industrialised countries but there has been little research to investigate prevalence or correlates of postpartum suicidality. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is widely used in primary and maternity services to screen for perinatal depressive disorders, and includes a question on suicidal ideation (question 10). We aimed to investigate the prevalence, persistence and correlates of suicidal thoughts in postpartum women in the context of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for postnatal depression. Women in primary care were sent postal questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum to screen for postnatal depression before recruitment into an RCT. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for postnatal depression and in those with high levels of symptoms, a home visit with a standardised psychiatric interview was carried out using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version (CIS-R). Other socio-demographic and clinical variables were measured, including functioning (SF12) and quality of the marital relationship (GRIMS). Women who entered the trial were followed up for 18 weeks. 9% of 4,150 women who completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation reported some suicidal ideation (including hardly ever); 4% reported that the thought of harming themselves had occurred to them sometimes or quite often. In women who entered the randomised trial and completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation (n = 253), suicidal ideation was associated with younger age, higher parity and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the multivariate analysis. Endorsement of 'yes, quite often' to question 10 on the EPDS was associated with affirming at least two CIS-R items on suicidality. We found no association between suicidal ideation and SF-12 physical or mental health or the EPDS total score at 18 weeks. Healthcare professionals using the EPDS should be aware of the significant suicidality that is likely to be present in women endorsing 'yes, quite often' to question 10 of the EPDS. However, suicidal ideation does not appear to predict poor outcomes in women being treated for postnatal depression. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16479417.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2011; 11:57. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A common polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5HTT) has been repeatedly shown to moderate the influence of childhood adversity and stressful life events on the development of psychopathology. Using data from the English and Romanian Adoptee Study, a prospective-longitudinal study of individuals (n = 125) exposed to severe early institutional deprivation (ID), we tested whether the effect of ID on adolescent emotional problems is moderated by 5HTT genotype and stressful life events in adolescence. Emotional problems were assessed using questionnaire data (age 11), and on the basis of the CAPA diagnostic interview (age 15). Additionally, the number of stressful life events was measured. There was a significant effect for genotype (p = .003) and a gene x environment interaction (p = .008) that was independent of age at testing. Carriers of the s/l and s/s genotype who experienced severe ID showed the highest emotional problem scores, while l/l homozygotes in the severe ID group showed the lowest overall levels. Furthermore, s/s carriers in the severe ID group who experienced a high number of stressful life events between 11 and 15 years had the largest increases in emotional problem scores, while a low number of stressful life events was associated with the largest decrease (4-way interaction: p = .05). The effects of severe early ID on emotional problems in adolescence are moderated by 5HTT genotype, and influenced by stressful life events in adolescence.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 03/2010; 51(7):755-62. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as having more problem behaviors and lower levels of social competence than children with Down syndrome and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities. Mothers of children with autism scored lower on positive perceptions of their child, and higher on stress than the other two groups. After selecting closely matched groups, we found several group differences in child behavior but little evidence of group differences in maternal outcomes.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11/2009; 40(5):610-9. · 3.06 Impact Factor