Different missense mutations in histidine‐108 of lysosomal acid lipase cause cholesteryl ester storage disease in unrelated compound heterozygous and hemizygous individuals
ABSTRACT Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease (WD) are both autosomal recessive disorders associated with reduced activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), that leads to the tissue accumulation of cholesteryl esters in endosomes and lysosomes. WD is caused by genetic defects of LAL that leave no residual enzymatic activity, while in CESD patients a residual LAL activity can be identified. We have analyzed the LAL cDNA in three CESD patients from two nonrelated families and identified the mutations responsible for the disease. The associated genetic defects characterized revealed compound heterozygosity for a splice defect leading to skipping of exon 8, due to a G→A transition at position –1 of the exon 8 splice donor site, and a point mutation leading to a His108Pro change (CAT→CCT) in two patients (siblings) with mild CESD phenotype. A further CESD patient was hemizygous for a His108→Arg missense mutation (CAT→CGT) in combination with a partial deletion of the LAL gene and was affected more severely. Expression of the LAL enzymes with the His108→Pro and His108→Arg mutation in insect cells revealed residual enzymatic activities of 4.6% versus 2.7%, respectively, compared with controls. Therefore, His108 seems to play a crucial role in folding or catalytic activity of the lysosomal acid lipase. This is the first description of two different, naturally occurring mutations involving the same amino acid residue in the lysosomal acid lipase in unrelated CESD patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the variable manifestation of CESD can be explained by mutation-dependent, variable inactivation of the LAL enzyme. Hum Mutat 12:44–51, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL; EC 18.104.22.168) is a key enzyme in the intracellular lipid metabolism. It hydrolyzes exogenous triglycerides and cholesterol esters taken up by various cell types. LAL has six potential N-glycosylation sites and one potential O-glycosylation site. Elimination of each of the six Asn-(X)-Ser/Thr sites by site-directed mutagenesis and expression in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells resulted in two single-mutant enzymes without lipolytic activities (N134Q and N246Q) and four mutants with preserved activities. The two inactive mutants were not detectable on immunoblot analysis, indicating that they were not secreted. Six double mutants in all possible combinations except for the two inactive single mutants were produced and expressed. Double mutants in combination with the N9 glycosylation site showed reduced activities as compared to the other mutants or the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic data of LAL glycosylation mutants indicate that substrate affinity of N9Q was not changed, but k (cat) of N9 mutants was reduced distinctly compared to the wild-type enzyme. Peanut agglutinin lectin did not recognize LAL, demonstrating that the protein has no core1 structure (Galbeta 1-3 GalNAc) of O-glycosylation. These data indicate that at least two of the six N-glycosylation sites are used in native lipase. N134 and N246 were found to be essential for LAL activity. We conclude that glycosylation plays an important role in the formation of functional LAL.Journal of Biochemistry 04/2005; 137(3):387-94. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvi043 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase (hLAL) is essential for the intralysosomal metabolism of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. The key role of the enzyme in intracellular lipid homeostasis is illustrated by two lysosomal storage diseases inherited as autosomal recessive traits. Wolman disease, associated with deficient hLAL activity, leads to massive intracellular substrate accumulation and is always fatal in early infancy. Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), in contrast, is characterized by very low levels of enzymic activity sufficient to allow survival of the affected patients into adulthood. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular defects in Wolman disease, we have characterized the hLAL gene in two female Wolman patients of German and Turkish origin by SSCP and DNA sequence analysis. Our results demonstrate that the German proband was compound heterozygous for an 8-bp deletion in exon 3 and a 2-bp deletion in exon 4 of the hLAL gene. These frameshift mutations lead to protein truncation at amino acid positions 24 and 116 and to complete loss of hydrolytic activity. The Turkish proband, in contrast, was homozygous for a G(1064)-->T substitution in exon 10 of the hLAL gene which converts the completely conserved glycine (GGG) residue at position 321 of the mature enzyme to tryptophan (TGG). In vitro expression of the hLAL(Gly(321)-->Trp) cDNA construct revealed that the amino acid replacement results in a more than 99% reduction of neutral lipid hydrolysis. The mutations provide new insights into the molecular basis of Wolman disease which is apparently more heterogeneous at the genetic level than cholesteryl ester storage disease.-Lohse, P., S. Maas, P. Lohse, A. C. Sewell, O. P. van Diggelen, and D. Seidel. Molecular defects underlying Wolman disease appear to be more heterogeneous than those resulting in cholesteryl ester storage disease.The Journal of Lipid Research 03/1999; 40(2):221-8. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiparameter flow cytometry reveals a complex heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocyte differentiation within the peripheral blood compartment. In this study, the relation of abnormal cellular lipid metabolism to the phenotype of peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes, which finally may be related to atherogenesis, was analyzed using recently characterized autosomal recessive defects of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) expression as model system. The reduction of LAL activity in nine heterozygote, disease free carriers of mutations from two cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) pedigrees and the family of a patient with Wolman disease was associated with an increased fraction of monocytes which expressed CD56 (N-CAM) (4.1 +/- 2.7% of monocytes, compared to 2.2 +/- 0.5% in ten controls, P < 0.05), an antigen characteristic of immature myeloid cells, suggesting an increased turnover of monocytes. Furthermore, a trend was observed towards an enhanced blood pool of more mature mononuclear phagocytes which show decreased expression of the 55 kD lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14) together with either expression of the Fc-gamma-receptor III (CD16) or a high expression of CD33. A similar phenotype of peripheral mononuclear phagocytes was observed in the two CESD patients analyzed. In conclusion, our data suggest that these monogenetic defects of lysosomal lipoprotein metabolism are associated with complex alterations of mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and extravasation.Atherosclerosis 04/1997; 130(1-2):215-21. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9150(97)06065-6 · 3.97 Impact Factor