Procedures Used to Prepare and Administer Intramuscular Injections: A Study of Infertility Nurses

Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.02). 07/2006; 29(2):159 - 168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2000.tb02036.x
Source: PubMed


Objective: To describe the procedures infertility nurses use to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications.
Design: Descriptive survey.
Participants: Nurses listed as members of the Nurses Professional Group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (N= 645) were surveyed. Completed questionnaires were returned by 219 of the nurses.
Main Outcome Measures: Volume of diluent, needle selection, site selection, internal rotation of the extremity distal to the injection site, and use of the z-track technique.
Results: There was wide variation in the gauge and length of needles used to administer the medications, with most nurses using a 22 g, 1-1/2-in needle for all medications. Most nurses changed the needle between preparing and administering medications; however, filter needles were seldom used. There was wide variation in the volume of diluent used to reconstitute medications. Most of the nurses used the dorsogluteal site for injections. Although almost all of the nurses indicated that they routinely rotated injection sites, they infrequently used sites other that the dorsogluteal site. Most nurses did not rotate the extremity distal to the injection site when administering injections and even fewer used the z-track technique.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated wide variation in the procedures used by infertility nurses to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications. Many nurses did not use procedures that can reduce the pain and tissue trauma associated with intramuscular injections

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    • "Despite the fact that advantages of using the VG muscle for IM injections have been recommended for many years, nurses use it infrequently (Winslow 1996, Small 2004). Engstrom et al. (2000) found that only 4AE5% of nurses indicated that they were confident using the VG site for IM injections, whereas 81AE5% indicated that they were comfortable using the DG site. The risk associated with injection into the DG muscle is foreseeable and 'although IM injection is considered a basic nursing skill, it must be treated with due diligence' (Small 2004, p. 294). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this descriptive, correlational study was to determine intramuscular injection sites presently being used by acute care nurses in one Canadian province and factors that contribute to site selection. Intramuscular injections are routinely administered by nurses in acute care settings. Recent nursing literature recommends that the ventrogluteal site, rather than the dorsogluteal site, should be used for these injections, although evidence in the literature to support this claim is lacking. A convenience sample of nurses employed in acute care settings was accessed through a database at the professional association. Six hundred and fifty-two nurses were sent a questionnaire. Two hundred and sixty-four questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 42·2%. Data were collected during 2007. Nurses are preferentially using the dorsogluteal site over the ventrogluteal site, and site selection varied significantly with age, level of preparation, years in nursing and knowledge of nerve injury as a complication with the selected site. Nurses are not preferentially using the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections to adults as recommended in recent nursing literature. Additional research on the safety of a properly mapped dorsogluteal site is needed.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 12/2010; 67(5):1034-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05527.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Infertility treatment affects a person physiologically and psychosocially and becoming pregnant does not necessarily spell the end to the problems caused by infertility. Few studies in Taiwan have investigated the psychological aspects of pregnancy after infertility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of past infertility on Taiwanese women's experience of their present pregnancies. Methods: A descriptive, qualitative study was conducted using semistructured in-depth interviews with 11 pregnant women. Colaizzi's phenomenology was selected for data analysis. Results: Three themes were generated from the interview data. These themes were: (A) a feeling of great relief; (B) uncertainty about the outcome of the pregnancy; and (C) adaptive behaviors; including (a) asking for reconfirmation, (b) informing their significant others, and (c) lifestyle changes. Conclusions: Although the pregnancy allowed the previously infertile women to cast off a heavy burden and reduced the pressure on them to continue the family line, after the initial period of happiness, ambivalence emerged. As the pregnancy progressed, particularly after the women felt fetal movement, they began to develop a mother-child relationship. However, all the women believed that until the baby was born, there was no way to be certain that the baby would be healthy. During the period before the birth, the women sought various channels for reassurance.
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