Procedures Used to Prepare and Administer Intramuscular Injections: A Study of Infertility Nurses

Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.03). 07/2006; 29(2):159 - 168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2000.tb02036.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the procedures infertility nurses use to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications.Design: Descriptive survey.Participants: Nurses listed as members of the Nurses Professional Group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (N= 645) were surveyed. Completed questionnaires were returned by 219 of the nurses.Main Outcome Measures: Volume of diluent, needle selection, site selection, internal rotation of the extremity distal to the injection site, and use of the z-track technique.Results: There was wide variation in the gauge and length of needles used to administer the medications, with most nurses using a 22 g, 1-1/2-in needle for all medications. Most nurses changed the needle between preparing and administering medications; however, filter needles were seldom used. There was wide variation in the volume of diluent used to reconstitute medications. Most of the nurses used the dorsogluteal site for injections. Although almost all of the nurses indicated that they routinely rotated injection sites, they infrequently used sites other that the dorsogluteal site. Most nurses did not rotate the extremity distal to the injection site when administering injections and even fewer used the z-track technique.Conclusions: This study demonstrated wide variation in the procedures used by infertility nurses to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications. Many nurses did not use procedures that can reduce the pain and tissue trauma associated with intramuscular injections

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper is the report of a study to determine whether changing the needle before administering an intramuscular injection could reduce pain, and to investigate gender differences in pain perception. A skilled injection technique can make the patient's experience less painful and avoid unnecessary complications, and the use of separate needles to draw up and administer medication ensures that the tip of the needle is sharp and free from medication residue. A randomized controlled trial was carried out between January 2009 and May 2009 with 100 patients receiving diclofenac sodium intramuscularly in an emergency and traffic hospital in İzmir, Turkey. The primary outcome was pain intensity measured on a numerical rating scale. Each patient received two injections by the same investigator using two different techniques. The two techniques were randomly allocated and the patients were blinded to the injection technique being administered. After each injection, another investigator who had no prior knowledge of which injection technique was used immediately assessed pain intensity using a numerical rating scale. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and t-test were used to evaluate the data. Findings demonstrated that changing the needle prior to intramuscular medication administration significantly reduced pain intensity. A statistical difference in pain intensity was observed between the two injection techniques. The results supported the hypothesis that changing the needle prior to administering the medicine significantly reduced pain intensity.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 03/2011; 67(3):563-8. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A patient-centred approach to care, focusing on recovery, demands a reconsideration of how choices are made about treatment, how this affects medication adherence, and the role of long-acting antipsychotics (LAIs) in this process. To explore the role of the mental health professional (particularly nurses) in helping patients manage their medication, with a specific focus of the use and administration of LAIs. A pragmatic review of the literature. Patients (by experience) and mental health professionals (by training and clinical practice) are experts in the care and treatment of psychosis. When patients and clinicians make a joint decision both are more likely to adhere to the treatment plan. In this paper we consider good practice in the administration of LAIs that focuses on where and when they should be given and administration techniques. Skills for talking with patients about their medication that include exchanging information, monitoring the effects of medication and making advance choices about treatment in the event of a crisis are also discussed. Mental health professionals require a range of competences to help patients manage their medication effectively.
    The British journal of psychiatry. Supplement 11/2009; 52:S51-6.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain originating from intramuscular (IM) injection should not be underestimated, because a painful injection might incite severe fear of injection, which may lead a patient to delay seeking medical help. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of two different IM methylprednisolone injection speeds on pain intensity and pain duration. A one-group quasiexperimental design was used to study 10-second versus 30-second injection durations. According to the formula for one sample using average values, 25 patients were recruited from a dermatology clinic. Data were collected using the "Patient Characteristics Form" and the visual analog scale (VAS). The mean difference in pain levels according to the VAS in the postinjection period was significantly higher with administration of IM methylprednisolone in 10 seconds compared with 30-second administration (VAS 1.9 vs. 1.3; p < .05). The severity of pain peaked at 0 minutes for both injection speeds, but the duration of pain was longer with 10-second injections. The data showed that at multiple time points after 10-second injections, men and patients >40 years old experienced greater pain severity. Pain severity after 30-second injections was greater for patients of normal or low weight who had completed higher levels of education. In conclusion, slow IM injection of steroids improves pain management.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 03/2013; 14(1):3-10. · 1.31 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014