Procedures Used to Prepare and Administer Intramuscular Injections: A Study of Infertility Nurses

Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.2). 07/2006; 29(2):159 - 168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2000.tb02036.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the procedures infertility nurses use to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications.Design: Descriptive survey.Participants: Nurses listed as members of the Nurses Professional Group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (N= 645) were surveyed. Completed questionnaires were returned by 219 of the nurses.Main Outcome Measures: Volume of diluent, needle selection, site selection, internal rotation of the extremity distal to the injection site, and use of the z-track technique.Results: There was wide variation in the gauge and length of needles used to administer the medications, with most nurses using a 22 g, 1-1/2-in needle for all medications. Most nurses changed the needle between preparing and administering medications; however, filter needles were seldom used. There was wide variation in the volume of diluent used to reconstitute medications. Most of the nurses used the dorsogluteal site for injections. Although almost all of the nurses indicated that they routinely rotated injection sites, they infrequently used sites other that the dorsogluteal site. Most nurses did not rotate the extremity distal to the injection site when administering injections and even fewer used the z-track technique.Conclusions: This study demonstrated wide variation in the procedures used by infertility nurses to prepare and administer intramuscular injections of fertility medications. Many nurses did not use procedures that can reduce the pain and tissue trauma associated with intramuscular injections

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    ABSTRACT: This paper is the report of a study to determine the effect on pain of internally rotating the foot, pointing the toes down and/or using the Z-track technique during intramuscular injection and to investigate differences in pain perception related to gender and body mass index. A randomized controlled trial was carried out from September to November 2010 on 75 patients receiving diclofenac sodium intramuscularly at a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey. The primary outcome measure collected was pain intensity, measured on a visual analogue scale. Each subject received three injections by the same investigator using three different techniques. The three techniques were randomly allocated, and the subjects were blinded to the injection technique being used. After each injection, another investigator, who had no prior knowledge of which injection technique was used, immediately assessed pain intensity using the visual analogue scale. Research findings demonstrated that the Z-track and internally rotated foot techniques significantly reduced pain intensity during intramuscular injection. Statistically significant differences in pain intensity were observed between the three injection techniques. The results supported the hypothesis that the internally rotated foot and Z-track techniques significantly reduce pain intensity.
    International Journal of Nursing Practice 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/ijn.12358 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Infertility treatment affects a person physiologically and psychosocially and becoming pregnant does not necessarily spell the end to the problems caused by infertility. Few studies in Taiwan have investigated the psychological aspects of pregnancy after infertility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of past infertility on Taiwanese women's experience of their present pregnancies. Methods: A descriptive, qualitative study was conducted using semistructured in-depth interviews with 11 pregnant women. Colaizzi's phenomenology was selected for data analysis. Results: Three themes were generated from the interview data. These themes were: (A) a feeling of great relief; (B) uncertainty about the outcome of the pregnancy; and (C) adaptive behaviors; including (a) asking for reconfirmation, (b) informing their significant others, and (c) lifestyle changes. Conclusions: Although the pregnancy allowed the previously infertile women to cast off a heavy burden and reduced the pressure on them to continue the family line, after the initial period of happiness, ambivalence emerged. As the pregnancy progressed, particularly after the women felt fetal movement, they began to develop a mother-child relationship. However, all the women believed that until the baby was born, there was no way to be certain that the baby would be healthy. During the period before the birth, the women sought various channels for reassurance.

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