Endocrine potency of wastewater: Contents of endocrine disrupting chemicals and effects measured by in vivo and in vitro assays

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.83). 12/2010; 30(2):413 - 426. DOI: 10.1002/etc.385

ABSTRACT Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl hydrocarbon, and thyroid receptors as well as the steroid hormone synthesis. The early-life stage (ELS) development was tested in a marine copepod. The concentrations of all analyzed chemicals were reduced in effluents compared with influents, and for some to below the detection limit. Influent as well as effluent samples from both STPs were found to interact with all four receptors and to interfere with the steroid hormone synthesis showing the presence of measured EDCs. Both influent samples and one of the effluent samples inhibited the development of the copepod Acartia tonsa. In conclusion, the presence of EDCs was reduced in the STPs but not eliminated, as verified by the applied bioassays that all responded to the extracts of effluent samples. Our data suggest that the wastewater treatment processes are not efficient enough to prevent contamination of environmental surface waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:413–426. © 2010 SETAC

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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the endocrine potency of municipal wastewater at 3 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia were investigated using a panel of in vitro receptor-driven transactivation assays. The assays were based on human estrogen receptor α, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2. Total removal efficiencies for estrogenic activity in the dissolved phase were 79.8 to 99.4%. Chemical analysis of 17β-estradiol, estrone and 17α-ethinylestradiol levels showed that they accounted for the majority of the observed in vitro estrogenic activity in the final effluents but only 18 to 70% of estrogenic activity in the influents. Removal efficiency for androgenic activity was 97.5 to 100%. Endocrine activity levels were low in the final effluent of the WWTP with the lowest catchment population, with only estrogenic activity detected. In the final effluent of the WWTP with intermediate catchment population, estrogenic, glucocorticoid and PPARγ2 activities were detected. Estrogenic, anti-androgenic, progestagenic, glucocorticoid and peroxisome proliferator activities were detected in the final effluent of the WWTP with the highest catchment population. The present study confirms the efficacy of secondary and tertiary treatment in reducing the concentrations of endocrine-active compounds in municipal wastewater. Further work is required to determine the possible health risks to aquatic biota posed by multiple hormonal activities present at low levels. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2014; 33(10). · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that can impact the reproduction of fish, potentially by altering circulating concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2 ), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Common methods to measure steroids in plasma samples include radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs). This paper examines variability in E2 , T and 11-KT across eight laboratories measuring reference and pulp mill effluent-exposed white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) plasma. We examine the contribution of assay type (RIA vs ELISA), standardized hormone extraction, location of values on the standard curve (upper and lower limits), and other variables on the ability to distinguish hormone levels between reference and exposed fish, and the impact of these variables on quantitation of hormones in different laboratories. Of the eight participating laboratories, seven out of eight and seven out of seven identified differences between sites for female E2 and female T, respectively, and seven out of seven and four out of five identified no differences between male T and male 11-KT, although the ng/ml concentration of steroids measured across laboratories varied by a factor of 10-, 6-, 14- and 10-fold, respectively. Within laboratory intra-assay variability was generally acceptable and below 15%. Factors contributing to inter-laboratory variability included calculation errors, assay type, and methodology. Based on the inter-laboratory variability detected, we provide guidelines and recommendations to improve accuracy and precision of steroid measurements in fish ecotoxicology studies. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, a 1.5-year field-scale study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the dissipation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) following a first agronomic biosolids application to nonirrigated farmland. CECs with the greatest decrease in concentration in the surface biosolids at 180 days post-application included indole, d-limonene, p-cresol, phenol, and skatol. CECs that were present in the largest concentration in 180-day-weathered biosolids included stanols, nonylphenols, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopenta-benzopyran (HHCB), and triclosan. CECs that were detected in pre-application soil were 3-beta coprostanol, skatol, acetophenone, beta-sitosterol, beta-stigmastanol, cholesterol, indole, p-cresol, and phenol, most of which are biogenic sterols or fragrances that have natural plant sources in addition to anthropogenic sources, yet their concentrations increased (in some cases, substantially) following biosolids application. Preliminary data indicate the nonylphenols (including NPEO1, NPEO2), OPEO1, benzo[a]pyrene, diethyl phthalate, d-limonene, HHCB, triclosan, and possibly 3-beta coprostanol, skatol, beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, indole, and p-cresol, migrated downward through the soil by 468 days post-application, but indicated little uptake by mature wheat plants. This study indicates that some CECs are sufficiently persistent and mobile to be vertically transported into the soil column following biosolids applications to the land surface, even in semiarid regions.
    JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 04/2014; 50(2). · 1.96 Impact Factor


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May 27, 2014