The Association Between Nitrous Oxide and Postoperative Mortality and Morbidity After Noncardiac Surgery
ABSTRACT Background:Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has been widely used in clinical anesthesia for >150 years. However, use of N(2)O has decreased in recent years because of concern about the drug's metabolic side effects. But evidence that routine use of N(2)O causes clinically important toxicity remains elusive. We therefore evaluated the relationship between intraoperative N(2)O administration and 30-day mortality as well as a set of major inpatient postoperative complications (including mortality) in adults who had general anesthesia for noncardiac surgery.Methods:We evaluated 49,016 patients who had noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between 2005 and 2009. Among 37,609 qualifying patients, 16,961 were given N(2)O ("nitrous," 45%) and 20,648 were not ("nonnitrous," 55%). Ten thousand seven hundred fifty-five nitrous patients (63% of the total) were propensity score-matched with 10,755 nonnitrous patients. Matched nitrous and nonnitrous patients were compared on 30-day mortality and a set of 8 in-hospital morbidity/mortality outcomes.Results:Inhalation of N(2)O intraoperatively was associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 97.5% confidence interval, 0.67, 0.46-0.97; P = 0.02). Furthermore, nitrous patients had an estimated 17% (OR: 0.83, 0.74-0.92) decreased odds of experiencing major in-hospital morbidity/mortality than nonnitrous (P < 0.001). Among the individual morbidities, intraoperative N(2)O use was only associated with significantly lower odds of having pulmonary/respiratory morbidities (OR, 95% Bonferroni-adjusted CI: 0.59, 0.44-0.78).Conclusions:Intraoperative N(2)O administration was associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality and decreased odds of in-hospital mortality/morbidity. Aside from its specific and well-known contraindications, the results of this study do not support eliminating N(2)O from anesthetic practice.
Anesthesia & Analgesia 08/2014; 119(2):497-498. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000251 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Pure oxygen ventilation during anaesthesia is debatable, as it may lead to development of atelectasis. Rationale of the study was to demonstrate the harmlessness of ventilation with pure oxygen. Methods. This is a single-centre, one-department observational trial. Prospectively collected routine-data of 76,784 patients undergoing general, gynaecological, orthopaedic, and vascular surgery during 1995–2009 were retrospectively analysed. Postoperative hypoxia, unplanned ICU-admission, surgical site infection (SSI), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and hospital mortality were continuously recorded. During 1996 the anaesthetic ventilation for all patients was changed from 30% oxygen plus 70% nitrous oxide to 100% oxygen in low-flow mode. Therefore, in order to minimize the potential of confounding due to a variety of treatments being used, we directly compared years 1995 (30% oxygen) and 1997 (100%), whereas the period 1998 to 2009 is simply described. Results. Comparing 1995 to 1997 pure oxygen ventilation led to a decreased incidence of postoperative hypoxic events (4.3 to 3.0%; p < 0.0001) and hospital mortality (2.1 to 1.6%; p = 0.088) as well as SSI (8.0 to 5.0%; p < 0.0001) and PONV (21.6 to 17.5%; p < 0.0001). There was no effect on unplanned ICU-admission (1.1 to 0.9; p = 0.18). Conclusions. The observed effects may be partly due to pure oxygen ventilation, abandonment of nitrous oxide, and application of low-flow anesthesia. Pure oxygen ventilation during general anaesthesia is harmless, as long as certain standards are adhered to. It makes anaesthesia simpler and safer and may reduce clinical morbidity, such as postoperative hypoxia and surgical site infection.10/2014; 2:e613. DOI:10.7717/peerj.613
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Nitrous oxide is commonly used in general anaesthesia but concerns exist that it might increase perioperative cardiovascular risk. We aimed to gather evidence to establish whether nitrous oxide affects perioperative cardiovascular risk. Methods We did an international, randomised, assessor-blinded trial in patients aged at least 45 years with known or suspected coronary artery disease having major non-cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned via automated telephone service, stratified by site, to receive a general anaesthetic with or without nitrous oxide. Attending anaesthetists were aware of patients' group assignments, but patients and assessors were not. The primary outcome measure was a composite of death and cardiovascular complications (non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac arrest) within 30 days of surgery. Our modified intention-to-treat population included all patients randomly assigned to groups and undergoing induction of general anaesthesia for surgery. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00430989. Findings Of 10 102 eligible patients, we enrolled 7112 patients between May 30, 2008, and Sept 28, 2013. 3543 were assigned to receive nitrous oxide and 3569 were assigned not to receive nitrous oxide. 3483 patients receiving nitrous oxide and 3509 not receiving nitrous oxide were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary outcome occurred in 283 (8%) patients receiving nitrous oxide and in 296 (8%) patients not receiving nitrous oxide (relative risk 0·96, 95% CI 0·83–1·12; p=0·64). Surgical site infection occurred in 321 (9%) patients assigned to nitrous oxide, and in 311 (9%) patients in the no-nitrous oxide group (p=0·61), and severe nausea and vomiting occurred in 506 patients (15%) assigned to nitrous oxide and 378 patients (11%) not assigned to nitrous oxide (p<0·0001). Interpretation Our findings support the safety profile of nitrous oxide use in major non-cardiac surgery. Nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of death and cardiovascular complications or surgical-site infection, the emetogenic effect of nitrous oxide can be controlled with antiemetic prophylaxis, and a desired effect of reduced volatile agent use was shown. Funding Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists; Heart and Stroke Foundation of Quebec, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Canada; General Research Fund of the Research Grant Council, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.The Lancet 10/2014; 384(9952). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60893-X · 39.21 Impact Factor