Stimulation of histone deacetylase activity by metabolites of intermediary metabolism.
ABSTRACT Histone deacetylases (HDACs) function in a wide range of molecular processes, including gene expression, and are of significant interest as therapeutic targets. Although their native complexes, subcellular localization, and recruitment mechanisms to chromatin have been extensively studied, much less is known about whether the enzymatic activity of non-sirtuin HDACs can be regulated by natural metabolites. Here, we show that several coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives, such as acetyl-CoA, butyryl-CoA, HMG-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, as well as NADPH but not NADP(+), NADH, or NAD(+), act as allosteric activators of recombinant HDAC1 and HDAC2 in vitro following a mixed activation kinetic. In contrast, free CoA, like unconjugated butyrate, inhibits HDAC activity in vitro. Analysis of a large number of engineered HDAC1 mutants suggests that the HDAC activity can potentially be decoupled from "activatability" by the CoA derivatives. In vivo, pharmacological inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to decrease NADPH levels led to significant increases in global levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation. The similarity in structures of the identified metabolites and the exquisite selectivity of NADPH over NADP(+), NADH, and NAD(+) as an HDAC activator reveal a previously unrecognized biochemical feature of the HDAC proteins with important consequences for regulation of histone acetylation as well as the development of more specific and potent HDAC inhibitors.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years the role of acetylation has gained ground as an essential modulator of intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Imbalance in energy homeostasis or chronic cellular stress, due to diet, aging or disease, translate into alterations in the acetylation levels of key proteins which governs bioenergetics, cellular substrate use and/or changes in mitochondrial content and function. For example, cellular stress induced by exercise or caloric restriction can alter the coordinated activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function in order to adapt to low energetic levels. The natural duality of these enzymes, as metabolic sensors and effector proteins, have helped biologists understand how the body can integrate seemingly distinct signaling pathways to control mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, reactive oxygen species handling, angiogenesis and muscle satellite cell proliferation/differentiation. Our review will summarize the recent developments related to acetylation dependent responses following metabolic stress in skeletal muscle.Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 09/2013; DOI:10.1530/JME-13-0140 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention.Nutrients 12/2012; 4(12):1868-86. DOI:10.3390/nu4121868 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NF κ B. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF- α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1 α , CCL4/MIP-1 β , CXCL2/MIP-2 α , and CXCL3/MIP-2 β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF α , IL-1 β , and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 06/2013; 2013:610950. DOI:10.1155/2013/610950 · 3.36 Impact Factor