Microarchitectural abnormalities are more severe in postmenopausal women with vertebral compared to nonvertebral fractures.
ABSTRACT Background: Abnormal bone microarchitecture predisposes postmenopausal women to fragility fractures. Whether women with vertebral fractures have worse microarchitecture than those with nonvertebral fractures is unknown. Methods: Postmenopausal women with a history of low trauma vertebral fracture (n = 30) and nonvertebral fracture (n = 73) and controls (n = 120) had areal bone mineral density of lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, 1/3 radius, and ultradistal radius measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitecture were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia. Finite element analysis estimated whole bone stiffness. Results: Mean age of subjects was 68 ± 7 yr. Groups were similar with respect to age, race, and body mass index. Mean T-scores did not differ from controls at any site except the ultradistal radius (vertebral fracture, 0.6 sd lower; nonvertebral fracture, 0.4 sd lower). Compared to controls, women with vertebral fractures had lower total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric density, lower cortical thickness, trabecular number and thickness, greater trabecular separation and network heterogeneity, and lower stiffness at both radius and tibia. Differences between women with nonvertebral fractures and controls were similar but less pronounced. Compared to women with nonvertebral fractures, women with vertebral fractures had lower total and trabecular density, lower cortical thickness and trabecular number, and greater trabecular separation and heterogeneity at the tibia. Whole bone stiffness tended to be lower (P = 0.06). Differences between fracture groups at the radius were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Women with vertebral fractures have more severe trabecular and cortical microarchitectural deterioration than those with nonvertebral fractures, particularly at the tibia.
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ABSTRACT: Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) identifies 20% of men who will sustain fragility fractures. Thus we need better fracture predictors in men. We assessed the association between the low-trauma prevalent fractures and bone microarchitecture assessed at the distal radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 920 men aged 50 years of older. Ninety-eight men had vertebral fractures identified on the vertebral fracture assessment software of the Hologic Discovery A device using the semiquantitative criteria, whereas 100 men reported low-trauma peripheral fractures. Men with vertebral fractures had poor bone microarchitecture. However, in the men with vertebral fractures, only cortical volumetric density (D.cort) and cortical thickness (C.Th) remained significantly lower at both the radius and tibia after adjustment for aBMD of ultradistal radius and hip, respectively. Low D.cort and C.Th were associated with higher prevalence of vertebral fractures regardless of aBMD. Severe vertebral fractures also were associated with poor trabecular microarchitecture regardless of aBMD. Men with peripheral fractures had poor bone microarchitecture. However, after adjustment for aBMD, all microarchitectural parameters became nonsignificant. In 15 men with multiple peripheral fractures, trabecular spacing and distribution remained increased after adjustment for aBMD. Thus, in men, vertebral fractures and their severity are associated with impaired cortical bone, even after adjustment for aBMD. The association between peripheral fractures and bone microarchitecture was weaker and nonsignificant after adjustment for aBMD. Thus bone microarchitecture may be a determinant of bone fragility in men, which should be investigated in prospective studies.Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2011; 26(6):1358-67. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on fracture risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICS and fractures in COPD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, regulatory documents and company registries were searched up to August 2010. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of budesonide or fluticasone versus control treatment for COPD (≥24 weeks duration) and controlled observational studies reporting on fracture risk with ICS exposure vs no exposure in COPD were included. Peto OR meta-analysis was used for fracture risk from RCTs while ORs from observational studies were pooled using the fixed effect inverse variance method. Dose-response analysis was conducted using variance-weighted least squares regression in the observational studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Sixteen RCTs (14 fluticasone, 2 budesonide) with 17,513 participants, and seven observational studies (n=69,000 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. ICSs were associated with a significantly increased risk of fractures (Peto OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.58; p=0.04; I(2)=0%) in the RCTs. In the observational studies, ICS exposure was associated with a significantly increased risk of fractures (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.32; p<0.001; I(2)=37%), with each 500 μg increase in beclomethasone dose equivalents associated with a 9% increased risk of fractures, OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.12; p<0.001). Among patients with COPD, long-term exposure to fluticasone and budesonide is consistently associated with a modest but statistically significant increased likelihood of fractures.Thorax 05/2011; 66(8):699-708. · 8.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of ankle fractures is changing. Increasing longevity has resulted in the highest age-specific incidence of ankle fractures being in women between 75 and 84 years of age. The introduction of the AO classification has facilitated analysis of the commonest fracture types. This survey of 1,500 ankle fractures, seen in a 3-year period in the Edinburgh Orthopaedic Trauma Unit, shows that the commonest ankle fractures are the B1.1 and A1.2 lateral malleolar fractures. Isolated malleolar fractures accounted for two thirds of the series, with bimalleolar fractures occurring in one fourth of the patients and trimalleolar fractures in the remaining 7%. Open fractures occurred in 2%.Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 03/1998; 69(1):43-7.