The receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTH1R) belongs to the class II G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The calpain small subunit encoded by the gene Capns1 is the second protein and the first enzyme identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular C-terminal tail of the rat PTH1R. The calpain regulatory small subunit forms a heterodimer with the calpain large catalytic subunit and modulates various cellular functions as a cysteine protease. To investigate a physiological role of the calpain small subunit in cells of the osteoblast lineage, we generated osteoblast-specific Capns1 knockout mouse models and characterized their bone phenotype. Molecular mechanisms by which calpain modulates cell proliferation of the osteoblast lineage were further examined in vitro. Moreover, we utilized the mutant mice as a disease model of osteoporosis accompanied with impaired bone resorptive function and suggested a possible clinical translation of our basic research finding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone remodelling, the mechanism by which vertebrates regulate bone mass, comprises two phases, namely resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts; osteoblasts are multifunctional cells also controlling osteoclast differentiation. Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin. Here we show, by analysing Adrb2-deficient mice, that the sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast differentiation factor Rankl. This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by protein kinase A) of ATF4, a cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and function. That bone resorption cannot increase in gonadectomized Adrb2-deficient mice highlights the biological importance of this regulation, but also contrasts sharply with the increase in bone resorption characterizing another hypogonadic mouse with low sympathetic tone, the ob/ob mouse. This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression. Our study establishes that leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling, and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gonadal failure induces bone loss while obesity prevents it. This raises the possibility that bone mass, body weight, and gonadal function are regulated by common pathways. To test this hypothesis, we studied leptin-deficient and leptin receptor–deficient mice that are obese and hypogonadic. Both mutant mice have an increased bone formation leading to high bone mass despite hypogonadism and hypercortisolism. This phenotype is dominant, independent of the presence of fat, and specific for the absence of leptin signaling. There is no leptin signaling in osteoblasts but intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin causes bone loss in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice. This study identifies leptin as a potent inhibitor of bone formation acting through the central nervous system and therefore describes the central nature of bone mass control and its disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain is an intracellular Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease (EC 184.108.40.206; Clan CA, family C02) discovered in 1964. It was also called CANP (Ca2+-activated neutral protease) as well as CASF, CDP, KAF, etc. until 1990. Calpains are found in almost all eukaryotes and a few bacteria, but not in archaebacteria. Calpains have a limited proteolytic activity, and function to transform or modulate their substrates' structures and activities; they are therefore called, "modulator proteases." In the human genome, 15 genes--CAPN1, CAPN2, etc.--encode a calpain-like protease domain. Their products are calpain homologs with divergent structures and various combinations of functional domains, including Ca2+-binding and microtubule-interaction domains. Genetic studies have linked calpain deficiencies to a variety of defects in many different organisms, including lethality, muscular dystrophies, gastropathy, and diabetes. This review of the study of calpains focuses especially on recent findings about their structure-function relationships. These discoveries have been greatly aided by the development of 3D structural studies and genetic models.
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Ser B Physical and Biological Sciences 06/2011; 87(6):287-327. DOI:10.2183/pjab.87.287 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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