GCK-MODY diabetes associated with protein misfolding, cellular self-association and degradation.
ABSTRACT GCK-MODY, dominantly inherited mild fasting hyperglycemia, has been associated with >600 different mutations in the glucokinase (GK)-encoding gene (GCK). When expressed as recombinant pancreatic proteins, some mutations result in enzymes with normal/near-normal catalytic properties. The molecular mechanism(s) of GCK-MODY due to these mutations has remained elusive. Here, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for two such catalytically 'normal' GCK mutations (S263P and G264S) in the F260-L270 loop of GK. When stably overexpressed in HEK293 cells and MIN6 β-cells, the S263P- and G264S-encoded mutations generated misfolded proteins with an increased rate of degradation (S263P>G264S) by the protein quality control machinery, and a propensity to self-associate (G264S>S263P) and form dimers (SDS resistant) and aggregates (partly Triton X-100 insoluble), as determined by pulse-chase experiments and subcellular fractionation. Thus, the GCK-MODY mutations S263P and G264S lead to protein misfolding causing destabilization, cellular dimerization/aggregation and enhanced rate of degradation. In silico predicted conformational changes of the F260-L270 loop structure are considered to mediate the dimerization of both mutant proteins by a domain swapping mechanism. Thus, similar properties may represent the molecular mechanisms for additional unexplained GCK-MODY mutations, and may also contribute to the disease mechanism in other previously characterized GCK-MODY inactivating mutations.
Article: Generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) diabetes models in mice demonstrates genotype-specific action of glucokinase activators.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We performed genome-wide mutagenesis in C57BL/6J mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea to identify mutations causing high blood glucose early in life and to produce new animal models of diabetes. Of a total of 13 new lines confirmed by heritability testing, we identified two semi-dominant pedigrees with novel missense mutations (Gck(K140E) and Gck(P417R)) in the gene encoding glucokinase (Gck), the mammalian glucose sensor that is mutated in human maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 and the target of emerging anti-hyperglycemic agents that function as glucokinase activators (GKAs). Diabetes phenotype corresponded with genotype (mild-to-severe: Gck(+/+) < Gck(P417R/+), Gck(K140E)(/+) < Gck(P417R/P417R), Gck(P417R/K140E), and Gck(K140E/K140E)) and with the level of expression of GCK in liver. Each mutant was produced as the recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli, and analysis of k(cat) and tryptophan fluorescence (I(320/360)) during thermal shift unfolding revealed a correlation between thermostability and the severity of hyperglycemia in the whole animal. Disruption of the glucokinase regulatory protein-binding site (GCK(K140E)), but not the ATP binding cassette (GCK(P417R)), prevented inhibition of enzyme activity by glucokinase regulatory protein and corresponded with reduced responsiveness to the GKA drug. Surprisingly, extracts from liver of diabetic GCK mutants inhibited activity of the recombinant enzyme, a property that was also observed in liver extracts from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results indicate a relationship between genotype, phenotype, and GKA efficacy. The integration of forward genetic screening and biochemical profiling opens a pathway for preclinical development of mechanism-based diabetes therapies.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2011; 286(45):39560-72. · 4.77 Impact Factor