Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Pseudois: Evidence of adaptive evolution of morphological variation in the ATP synthase genes.
ABSTRACT The genus Pseudois includes two variable taxa, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), that exhibit notable geographic variation in morphology and ecological niche, suggesting the potential for significant adaptive differentiation between these two goats. Blue sheep are broadly distributed in the Tibetan Plateau and peripheral mountains through Central Asia, while dwarf blue sheep are only found in the gorges of the upper Yangtze River (Jinsha River) near Batang county, Sichuan province and adjacent mountains. Although they are all adapted to high altitude environments, endangered dwarf blue sheep show unique morphological variation and niche shifts compared to blue sheep. Mitochondria play important roles in oxygen usage and energy metabolism. The energetically demanding lifestyles of these high altitude species may have altered the selective regimes on mitochondrial genes encoding proteins related to cellular respiration. Here, we compared the sequences of 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of dwarf blue sheep with those of blue sheep to understand the genetic basis of morphological variation. Using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches, we estimated rates of synonymous (d(S)) and nonsynonymous (d(N)) substitutions. Independent analyses showed that no ω ratio was larger than 1, suggesting that all mitochondrial 13 genes were under the purifying selection. Surprisingly, we found that the ω ratio (d(N)/d(S)) of the ATP synthase complex (ATP6 and ATP8) in blue sheep is sixteen times that of dwarf blue sheep (0.340 compared to 0.021). This result was confirmed by a separate analysis of ATP synthase genes from two additional P. schaeferi individuals and two P. nayaur individuals. We hypothesize that the large body size and diverse feeding styles are factors influencing the nonsynonymous substitutions in the ATP synthase complex of blue sheep.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a leading risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Although in its simplest terms, obesity may be thought of as a consequence of excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, it is also evident that individual propensity for weight gain can vary. The etiology of individual susceptibility to obesity appears to be complex - involving a combination of environmental - genetic interactions. Herein, we suggest that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual susceptibility to this disease via mitochondrial - nuclear interaction processes, and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times can influence individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 09/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The population of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur, from Helan Mountain in China is considered as a new subspecies. We first determined and annotated its complete mitochondrial genome. The mitogenome is 16,795 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.2%, T: 26.6%, C: 26.8% and G: 13.3%. The complete mitogenome of the new subspecies of P. nayaur could provide an important data to further explore the taxonomic status of the subspecies.Mitochondrial DNA 01/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Adaptive evolutions to high-altitude adaptation have been intensively studied in mammals. However, considering the additional vertebrate groups, new perception regarding selection challenged by high-altitude stress on mitochondrial genome can be gained. To test this hypothesis, we compiled and analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 5 alpine pheasants and 12 low-altitude species in Phasianidae. The results that evolutionary rates of ATP6 and ND6 showing significant fluctuation among branches when involved with five alpine pheasants revealed both genes might have implications with adapting to highland environment. The radical physico-chemical property changes identified by the modified MM01 model, including composition (C) and equilibrium constant (ionization of COOH) (Pk') in ATP6 and beta-structure tendencies (Pβ), Pk', and long-range non-bonded energy (El) in ND6, suggested that minor overall adjustments in size, protein conformation and relative orientation of reaction interfaces have been optimized to provide the ideal environments for electron transfer, proton translocation and generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, three unique substitution sites were identified under selection in ND6, which could be potentially important adaptive changes contributing to cellular energy production. Our findings suggested that adaptive evolution may occur in alpine pheasants, which are an important complement to the knowledge of genetic mechanisms against the high-altitude environment in non-mammal animals.Mitochondrial DNA 04/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor