Zinc supplementation prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and congenital heart defects in embryos of diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress induced by maternal diabetes plays an important role in the development of cardiac malformations. Zinc (Zn) supplementation of animals and humans has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress induced by diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the role of Zn in the prevention of oxidative stress induced by diabetic cardiac embryopathy remains unknown. We analyzed the preventive role of Zn in diabetic cardiac embryopathy by both in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo study revealed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, superoxide ions, and oxidized glutathione and an increase in reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase in the developing heart at embryonic days (E) 13.5 and 15.5 in the Zn-supplemented diabetic group when compared to the diabetic group. In addition, significantly down-regulated protein and mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT) in the developing heart of embryos from diabetic group was rescued by Zn supplement. Further, the nuclear microscopy results showed that trace elements such as phosphorus, calcium, and Zn levels were significantly increased (P<0.001), whereas the iron level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the developing heart of embryos from the Zn-supplemented diabetic group. In vitro study showed a significant increase in cellular apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 (rat embryonic cardiomyoblast) cells exposed to high glucose concentrations. Supplementation with Zn significantly decreased apoptosis and reduced the levels of ROS. In summary, oxidative stress induced by maternal diabetes could play a role in the development and progression of cardiac embryopathy, and Zn supplementation could be a potential therapy for diabetic cardiac embryopathy.
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ABSTRACT: Zinc is an element that under physiological conditions preferentially binds to and is a potent inducer of metallothionein under physiological conditions. The present study was conducted to explore whether zinc supplementation morphologically and biochemically protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney metallothionein induction and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar albino male rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as untreated controls and the second group was supplemented with 30 mg/kg/day zinc as zinc sulfate. The third group was treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetes and the fourth group was treated with streptozotocin and supplemented with zinc as described for group 2. The blood glucose and micro-albuminuria levels, body and kidney weights were measured during the 42-day experimental period. At the end of the experiment, the kidneys were removed from all animals from the four groups. Diabetes resulted in degenerative kidney morphological changes. The metallothionein immunoreactivity level was lower and the kidney lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the diabetes group than in the controls. The metallothionein immunoreactivity levels were higher in the tubules of the zinc-supplemented diabetic rats as compared to the non-supplemented diabetic group. The zinc and metallothionein concentrations in kidney tissue were higher in the supplemented diabetic group compared to the non-supplemented diabetes group. The activity of glutathione peroxidase did not change in any of the four groups. In conclusion, the present study shows that zinc has a protective effect against diabetic damage of kidney tissue through stimulation of metallothionein synthesis and regulation of the oxidative stress.Biological trace element research 09/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral that is required for various cellular functions. Zn dyshomeostasis always is related to certain disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications. The associations of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications, thus, stem from the multiple roles of Zn: (1) a constructive component of many important enzymes or proteins, (2) a requirement for insulin storage and secretion, (3) a direct or indirect antioxidant action, and (4) an insulin-like action. However, whether there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or diabetic complications remains unclear. In fact, it is known that Zn deficiency is a common phenomenon in diabetic patients. Chronic low intake of Zn was associated with the increased risk of diabetes and diabetes also impairs Zn metabolism. Theoretically Zn supplementation should prevent the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications; however, limited available data are not always supportive of the above notion. Therefore, this review has tried to summarize these pieces of available information, possible mechanisms by which Zn prevents the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. In the final part, what are the current issues for Zn supplementation were also discussed.Frontiers of medicine. 02/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N- ω -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2013; 2013:240560.