Changes of cytosolic calcium and contractility of young rat vas deferens by acute treatment with amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine
ABSTRACT Previous studies conducted in our laboratory indicated that administration of amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine affects the sympathetic nervous system of the rat vas deferens. Therefore, our goal was to verify the role of calcium in vasa deferentia from young rats pretreated with a single dose of these drugs. Young 40-day-old male Wistar rats were pretreated with amphetamine 3 mg/kg, fluoxetine 10 mg/kg or sibutramine 6 mg/kg for 4 h before the experiments. CaCl(2) (10 mM) was used to induce contraction through time-effect curves in calcium-free solution to measure phasic and tonic components. We also evaluated the calcium-induced fluorescence of vas deferens cut into thin slices. In rats pretreated with amphetamine, we found an increase of the tonic contraction component which was reduced by verapamil. The phasic and tonic responses were increased in the group treated with fluoxetine, but only the tonic response was more sensitive to the antagonism by verapamil. The group treated with sibutramine showed an increase of phasic response whereas the tonic component was decreased. In this group an increase of the affinity for verapamil antagonism was found. In the calcium fluorescence study it was observed that the group treated with amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine showed higher basal Ca(2+) fluorescence after stimulus with KCl (70 mM), noradrenaline (10(-4)M) or acetylcholine (10(-4)M). In all pretreated groups the calcium fluorescence was diminished by nifedipine 10(-7)M. Therefore, the pretreatment with amphetamine, fluoxetine or sibutramine seems to affect the calcium contractility and homeostasis in young rat vas deferens.
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ABSTRACT: Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, especially considering the lower reproductive efficiency of humans compared to males of other species.PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66091. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066091 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of acute treatment with sibutramine on the peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission in vas deferens of young rats were still not evaluated. Therefore, we carried out this study in order to verify the effects of acute sibutramine treatment on the neuronal- and exogenous agonist-induced contractions of the young rat vas deferens. Young 45-day-old male Wistar rats were pretreated with sibutramine 6mg/kg and after 4h the vas deferens was used for experiment. The acute treatment with sibutramine was able to increase the potency (pD2) of noradrenaline and phenylephrine. Moreover, the efficacy (Emax) of noradrenaline was increased while the efficacy of serotonin and nicotine were decreased. The maximum effect induced by a single concentration of tyramine was diminished in the vas deferens from treated group. Moreover, the leftward shift of the noradrenaline curves promoted by uptake blockers (cocaine and corticosterone) and β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) was reduced in the vas deferens of treated group. The initial phasic and secondary tonic components of the neuronal-evoked contractions of vas deferens from treated group at the frequencies of 2Hz were decreased. Moreover, only the initial phasic component at 5Hz was diminished by the acute treatment with sibutramine. In conclusion, we showed that the acute treatment with sibutramine in young rats was able to affect the peripheral sympathetic nervous system by inhibition of noradrenaline uptake and reduction of the neuronal content of this neurotransmitter, leading to an enhancement of vas deferens sensitivity to noradrenaline.European Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; 738. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.05.035 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is characterized by a set of physiological modifications triggered by abrupt withdrawal and/or decreasing consumption of ethanol (EtOH), which may manifest 16-48 hours after ceasing consumption. The relationship between the effects of AWS and central and peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission is unknown.This study investigates the possible mechanisms on the sympathetic system during periods of AWS. Male Wistar rats were treated with EtOH (6-10 g/kg/day/v.o. 5 days). Subsequently, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 120 h after administration of the last dose of EtOH, the animals were sacrificed, and their vas deferens (VD) were removed to perform the following evaluations: (a) concentration-effect curves of agonists sympathetic; (b) activity of α2-adrenoreceptor; (c) function of voltage-dependent calcium channels (Cav); (d) release of endogenous catecholamines measured in real time coupled to HPLC. The results showed that the maximum effects of contraction were increased by agonists tested in at 24 h and 48 h EtOH withdrawal. The inhibitory affinity (pIC50) of guanfacine was decreased 24 h EtOH withdrawal. The function of Cav was also decreased as pIC50 values dropped 24 h and 48 h EtOH withdrawal. The release of catecholamines increased 48 h after EtOH withdrawal. It is suggested that AWS triggers hyperactivity in peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission. The mechanisms underlying hyperactivity are possibly explained by a failure of autoregulation from catecholamines released by α2-adrenoreceptors and/or an increase of Cav function, which may be potential targets to attenuate the symptoms of AWS at the peripheral level.Life sciences 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.05.002 · 2.30 Impact Factor