Aging kidneys exhibit slowly developing injury and women are usually protected compared with men, in association with maintained renal nitric oxide.
Our purpose was to test 2 hypotheses: (1) that aging intact Fischer-344 (F344) female rats exhibit less glomerular damage than similarly aged males, and (2) that loss of female ovarian hormones would lead to greater structural injury and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in aging F344 rat kidneys.
We compared renal injury in F344 rats in intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen replaced young (6 month) and old (24 month) female rats with young and old intact male rats and measured renal protein abundance of NOS isoforms and oxidative stress.
There was no difference in age-dependent glomerular damage between young or old intact male and female F344 rats, and neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement affected renal injury; however, tubulointerstitial injury was greater in old males than in old females. These data suggest that ovarian hormones do not influence these aspects of kidney aging in F344 rats and that the greater tubulointerstitial injury is caused by male sex. Old males had greater kidney cortex NOS3 abundance than females, and NOS1 abundance (alpha and beta isoforms) was increased in old males compared with both young males and old females. NOS abundance was preserved with age in intact females, ovariectomy did not reduce NOS1 or NOS3 protein abundance, and estrogen replacement did not uniformly elevate NOS proteins, suggesting that estrogens are not primary regulators of renal NOS abundance in this strain. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent superoxide production and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in aging male rat kidneys compared with females, which could compromise renal nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability.
The kidney damage expressed in aging F344 rats is fairly mild and is not related to loss of renal cortex NOS3 or NOS1 alpha.
"Other notable functional deficits in the rat include proteinuria and reduced urine concentration (Haley and Bulger 1983; Sands 2003). Of note, the development of renal disease is more severe in males as compared to females (Baylis 1994; Sasser et al. 2012), and that nutrition affects age-related renal dysfunction (Zawada et al. 1997). In male Fischer 344 rats, we observe a progression of kidney deterioration similar to end-stage renal disease including severe glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis (Corman and Owen 1992). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The percentage of the U.S. population over 65 is rapidly increasing, as is the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The kidney is susceptible to age-dependent alterations in structure, specifically tubulointerstitial fibrosis, that lead to CKD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially characterized as extracellular matrix (ECM) proteinases; however it is clear that their biological role is much larger. We have observed increased gene expression of several MMPs in the aging kidney, including MMP-7. MMP-7 overexpression was observed starting at 16 months, and over a 500 fold up-regulation in 2 year-old animals. Overexpression of MMP-7 is not observed in age-matched, calorically restricted controls that do not develop fibrosis and renal dysfunction, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis. In order to delineate the contributions of MMP-7 to renal dysfunction, we overexpressed MMP-7 in NRK-52E cells. High-throughput sequencing of the cells revealed that two collagen genes, Col1a2 and Col3a1, were elevated in the MMP-7 overexpressing cells. These two collagen genes were also elevated in aging rat kidneys and temporally correlated with increased MMP-7 expression. Addition of exogenous MMP-7, or conditioned media from MMP-7 overexpressing cells also increased Col1A2 expression. Inhibition of PKA, src, and MAPK signaling at p38 and ERK was able to attenuate the MMP-7 up-regulation of Col1a2. Consistent with this finding, increased phosphorylation of PKA, src and ERK was seen in MMP-7 overexpressing cells and upon exogenous MMP-7 treatment of NRK-52E cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which MMP-7 contributes to the development of fibrosis leading to CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initial studies found that female Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats exhibit greater blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity than female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Based on the central role played by NO in sodium excretion and BP control, we further tested the hypothesis that blunted increases in BP in female SHR will be accompanied by greater increases in renal inner medullary NOS activity and expression in response to a HS diet compared to DS rats. Gonad-intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female SHR and DS rats were placed on normal salt (NS; 0.4% salt) or HS (4% salt) diet for 2 weeks. OVX did not alter BP in SHR and HS diet produced a modest increase in BP. OVX significantly increased BP in DS rats on NS; HS further increased BP in all DS rats although OVX had a greater increase in BP. Renal inner medullary NOS activity, total NOS3 protein and NOS3 phosphorylated on serine residue 1177 were not altered by salt or OVX in either strain. NOS1 protein expression, however, significantly increased with HS only in SHR and this corresponded to an increase in urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion. SHR also exhibit greater NOS1 and NOS3 protein expression than DS rats. These data indicate that female sex hormones offer protection against HS mediated elevations in BP in DS rats but not SHR. We propose that the relative resistance to HS-mediated increases in BP in SHR is related to greater NOS expression and the ability to increase NOS1 protein expression compared to DS rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We previously reported that sexually mature female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) have greater nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) enzymatic activity in the renal inner medulla (IM), compared to age-matched males. However, the mechanisms responsible for this sexual dimorphism are unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in renal IM NOS activity and NOS1 expression in adult SHRs develop with sexual maturation and increases in blood pressure (BP) in a female sex hormone-dependent manner.
Methods and results:
Renal IM were isolated from sexually immature 5-week-old and sexually mature 13-week-old male and female SHRs. Whereas NOS activity and NOS1 expression were comparable in 5- and 13-week-old male SHRs and 5-week-old female SHRs, 13-week-old females had greater NOS activity and NOS1 expression, compared to 5-week-old female SHRs and age-matched males. NOS3 expression was greater in 5-week-old than 13-week-old SHRs regardless of sex. Treatment with antihypertensive therapy (hydrochlorothiazide and reserpine) from 6 to 12 weeks of age to attenuate age-related increases in BP abolished the sex difference in NOS activity and NOS1 expression between sexually mature SHR males and females. To assess the role of female sex hormones in age-related increases in NOS, additional females were ovariectomized (OVX), and NOS activity was studied 8 weeks post-OVX. OVX decreased NOS activity and NOS1 expression.
The sex difference in renal IM NOS in SHR is mediated by a sex hormone- and BP-dependent increase in NOS1 expression and NOS activity exclusively in females.
Journal of the American Heart Association 03/2015; 4(4):e001738-e001738. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001738 · 4.31 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.