Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction in the Indian population: A retrospective clinico-radiographic survey

Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India.
Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology 07/2012; 116(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2011.12.019
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to study incidence of type of impaction of mandibular third molars in the Indian population.

Study design:
Data of 1200 patients examined during a 5-year period were reviewed, which included status of mandibular third molar for inclination, emergence in oral cavity, and prevalence of caries. Radiographically, angulation of tooth, level of occlusal surface of third molar with respect to second molar, relationship between ascending ramus of mandible and distal surface of third molar, and proximity to inferior alveolar nerve were studied.

Of 1200 patient data reviewed, 620 (51.77%) were of men and 580 (48.3%) were women in the age group of 20 to 40 years (26.3 years). Mesioangular impaction was most prevalent followed by distoangular. A strong statistical significance was found between gender and ramus relationship. Fifty percent of cases showed proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve, which was more frequent in males (58.3%).

Our study highlights mesioangular impaction as the most frequently encountered angulation in impacted teeth.

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    • "Tooth impaction is a pathological condition in which a tooth fails to erupt to its normal functional position within the expected time frame, either due to lack of space, or physical barriers [Agarwal et al. 2004]. Mandibular third molar (M3) is the most commonly impacted tooth and accounts for 98% of all impactions [Padhye et al. 2013]. Different studies have reported a different prevalence rate for impaction of the mandibular M3 which varies between 16.7% and 68.6%, respectively [Kaya et al. 2010]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mandibular third molar is the most commonly impacted tooth, and its removal is a frequently performed dentoalveolar procedure. It is important to know the prevalence rate in a particular community.Objective: This article aims at evaluation of angulation, ramus relationship and depth of impacted mandibular third molars among patients visiting a private dental clinic in Sultanpur Lodhi.Methodology: 150 patients presenting with 228 cases of lower third molar impaction were included within this study. IOPAR and where necessary, OPG was used for radiographic assessment. Age, sex and tooth number were recorded in each patient on a specially designed performa. Angulation was determined using winter’s method whereas assessment of ramus relationship and depth was done using Pell and Gregory's method.Results and Conclusion: The age of patients ranged from 21-43 years with mean age of 26.6 years. Males showed preponderance to mandibular M3 impaction (54%) in our study, and right side was found more frequently involved (53%). Radiographic assessment revealed that mesioangular impaction (45.2%) was the most prevalent angular pattern followed by vertical, distoangular and horizontal types, and Class 2 Position A (29.4%) most common and Class 1 Position C the least common type of impaction depth and ramus relationship.
    09/2015; 3(2):47. DOI:10.14419/ijh.v3i2.5173
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    • "commonly impacted teeth were mandibular 3rd molars (Table 4). These findings are in concurrence with the findings from other studies [6,17,21,31]. The reasons for this occurrence have been explained by others [32,33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Impacted teeth predispose to periodontal disease and dental caries of adjacent second teeth resulting in pain, discomfort and loss of function. This study analyzed the pattern of occurrence of impacted teeth, associated symptoms, treatment and complications of treatment in patients who presented at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. This was a crossectional descriptive study which utilized notes and x rays of patients who were treated for impacted teeth at the Oral and Maxillofacial firm in Muhimbili National Hospital over five years, from January 2005 to August 2010. These records were retrieved and examined for the major complaint of the patient at presentation to hospital, demography, impacted tooth, type of impaction (for third molars), treatment offered and complications after treatment. Similar information was collected from all patients with impacted teeth attended in the same centre from 1st September 2010 to 31st August 2011. A total of 896 patients (496 males and 400 females) treated for complaints related to impacted teeth were recorded. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1, age range of 16 to 85 years and a mean age of 28.9 years (SD = 9.5).Slightly more than 84% of the patients presented with mandibular third molar impactions. Most (44.7%) of these patients had an impacted lower right third molar followed by those presenting with a lower left third molar impaction (39.7%). In 1.3% of the patients all the four third molars were impacted. Sixty nine (7.7%) patients had impacted upper 3rd molars while 2% had impacted upper canines. Of the mandibular 3rd molar impactions 738 (76%) were mesio-angular type, 87 (8.9%) horizontal type and 69 (7.1%) disto-angular.Patients presented with a variety of complaints. About 85% of the patients presented to hospital due to varying degrees of pain. In 4.9% the detection of the impacted tooth/teeth was coincidental after presenting to hospital for other reasons not related to the impaction.Majority of the patients with impacted mandibular third molars had carious lesions on the impacted teeth, neighbouring tooth or both. Four hundred and five (45.2%) patients had a carious lesion on one of the impacted teeth while 201(22.4%) patients had a carious lesion on the adjacent second molar. In 122 (13.6%) patients both the impacted third molar and the adjacent second molar were carious. In twelve patients who presented with a main complaint of fracture of the angle of the mandible there was an associated impacted 3rd molar. Eight hundred and fifteen (91%) patients with impacted teeth were treated by surgical removal. Among these only 15 (1.8%) had complications that ranged from excessive swellings, trismus and severe pain post operatively. One patient was reported to have fracture of the angle of the mandible sustained during surgical removal of an impacted 48. The majority of patients with impacted teeth were young with an almost equal sex distribution. The most commonly impacted teeth were mandibular third molars followed by the maxillary third molars. Patients with impacted teeth reported for health care predominantly because of pain due to dental caries or infection.There is a need of creating appropriate programmes that would further raise peoples' awareness to regular dental checkups so that appropriate measures are taken before complications arise.
    BMC Oral Health 08/2013; 13(1):37. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-13-37 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the variations in decision making among Brazilian oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) and trainees in relation to third molar surgery. A survey on 18 diverse clinical situations related to the assessment and treatment of the third molar surgeries was conducted during the 20th Brazilian National OMFS meeting. Participants were divided into three groups according to their level of training. Another variable studied was length of experience. Correlation between the question answers and the variables was analysed using the chi-square test and the f test. The mean age of participants was 32.68 years, and their mean length of experience was 5.24 years. There were no statistical differences between the level of training and number of years of experience and the responses to 15 of the 18 questions on clinical situations. However, differences were found in responses to prophylactic extraction of asymptomatic third molars, use of non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during the preoperative surgical period and the use of additional imaging to plan extractions. The group with shorter time of experience (3.8 ± 3.94 years) tended to recommend extractions of asymptomatic third molars more frequently compared with the more experienced surgeons (P = 0.041). More experienced surgeons used NSAIDs in the preoperative surgical period, whereas the majority of the youngest surgeons (4.1 ± 5.96 years of experience) did not (P = 0.0042). The certificated trained and in practice group tended to treat deep lower third molar impactions based on the findings of a panoramic radiograph, without obtaining additional imaging [cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)] before treatment (P = 0.0132). Decision making regarding third molar treatment differs according to the level of training and is influenced by the number of years of experience. Therefore, further continuous education programmes in this area are warranted to make recommendations regarding third molars consistent with the current literature. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
    International Dental Journal 04/2015; 65(4). DOI:10.1111/idj.12165 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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