A systematic review to determine the reliability of knee joint position sense assessment measures.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The assessment of joint position sense (JPS) is the most widely used measurement of knee proprioceptive capability within the literature. However, it remains unclear what the most reliable method is to assess this. The purpose of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the various methods used to assess knee JPS. METHODS: A systematic review of published and unpublished literature sources was conducted up to June 2012. All studies principally assessing the reliability (intra- or inter-rater) or reproducibility of a JPS of the knee were included. The methodological quality of each study was reviewed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were eligible, assessing the reliability of JPS with 456 knees. The reliability of four methods of JPS has been recorded: position replication using a model, image recorded angulation, electrogoniometry and dynamometry/angular motion chair. Intra-rater reliability was good for the assessment of JPS using photographs and digital images, and replicating knee position using a paper model, this was good but variable when electrogoniometry was used, and moderate but variable when assessed using dynamometry/angle motion chairs. The assessment of JPS by image recorded angulation, electrogoniometry and dynamometry/angular motion chair has demonstrated good inter-rater reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst JPS methods appear to have variable reliability, the four assessment methods should be further assessed with pathological populations such as those following patellar dislocation or anterior cruciate ligament rupture. This will better facilitate the generalisability of JPS assessment methods to inform clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Joint proprioceptive deficit is documented in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions including osteoarthritis, ligament and meniscal injuries, and individuals with increased joint hypermobility, such as those with Ehlers-Danlos. No systematic reviews have assessed joint proprioception in people with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). This study addresses this to determine whether people with BJHS exhibit reduced joint proprioception, and, if so, whether this is evident in all age groups. The search strategy was conducted on 31st January 2013. The published literature was assessed using the databases: AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Unpublished literature and trial registries were assessed including: OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, the UK National Research Register Archive. All studies comparing the proprioceptive capability of people with and without BJHS were included. Study methodological quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. Meta-analysis techniques were used when study homogeneity permitted. Five studies including 254 people were identified. People with BJHS demonstrated statistically significantly poorer lower limb joint position sense (JPS) (p < 0.001) and threshold detection to movement (p < 0.001) than those without BJHS. The evidence for upper limb proprioceptive difference was less clear, with no statistically significant difference between the cohorts for shoulder JPS (p = 0.10), but a statistically significant difference in finger JPS (p < 0.001). One study which assessed childhood BJHS reported reduced knee proprioceptive capability in those with BJHS (p < 0.001). To conclude, lower limb joint proprioception is reduced in those with BJHS compared to non-BJHS cohorts, whilst unclear in the upper limb.Rheumatology International 06/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to provide information for intervention by comparing lower limb muscle thickness, gross motor function and functional level of activity daily living between cerebral palsy (CP) and mental retardation (MR). [Subjects] Sixty subjects participated: 38 CP and 9 MR subjects and 13 normally developing infants. [Methods] Ultrasonography and a manual muscle tester were used for measuring the thickness and strength of knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were used to evaluate level of gross motor and independence level. [Results] Knee extensor thicknesses of CP and MR subjects were thinner than those of normally developing infants. Strengths of knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor showed differences being strongest in normally developing infants, followed by MR, and CP. Subjects in the examination of GMFM, there were no significant differences between CP and MR. A decline in social cognition of MR subjects was found in the examination of WeeFIM. [Conclusion] CP and MR subjects had smaller muscle thicknesses and strengths than those of normally developing infants, and lower gross motor function and functional independent level.Journal of Physical Therapy Science 01/2014; 26(1):63-6. · 0.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the structure of skeletal muscle of lower extremities on function, activity, and participation of children with cerebral palsy. The subjects were 38 hospitalized patients and 13 infants with normal development. The following clinical measures were used for assessment of activity daily living and functional level of gross motor: Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM), International Classification of Functioning Child and Youth (ICF CY). Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor and ankle extensor were collected using ultrasonography and manual muscle tester. Following the results of ICF CY evaluation for body function, activity, learning and application of knowledge, communication and environmental factors showed a decline (P< 0.05). Significant differences in the thickness of muscle was observed according to the GMFCS level, thickness of knee extensor and ankle extensor of cerebral palsy (P< 0.05), and clauses of self-care, activity, mobility, ambulation, communication, and social acknowledgement (P< 0.05). Following analysis, results showed negative correlation in the thickness of muscle, muscle strength, major motor function, daily activity and participation; the score of ICF-CY was shown to decline due to the high score for differences in thickness of muscle, muscle strength, WeeFIM, and GMFM. The thickness and muscle strength of lower extremities affect main functions of the body and improvement of muscle strength of lower extremities may have positive effects on social standards such as activity and participation of cerebral palsy.Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 01/2013; 9(3):368-374.