HLA class I protective alleles in an HIV-1-infected subject homozygous for CCR5-Δ32/Δ32.
ABSTRACT Homozygosity for a 32bp deletion in CCR5 (CCR5-Δ32/Δ32) is associated with strong resistance against HIV-1 infection. Several HLA types have been associated to improved viral control and/or delayed progression to AIDS. We report a unique HIV-1 infected individual homozygous for CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 and carrier of HLA-A*2402 and HLA-B*5701. In comparison with earlier data and although a replication competent virus has been isolated, the patient presents better immune status, response to treatment and disease evolution, which may be related to the control exerted by HLA class I restricted T cell immunity. Importantly, the accumulation of protective factors does not warrant a complete protection to HIV infection and the subsequent life-long treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Sheila M Keating[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5Δ32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.PLoS Pathogens 05/2013; 9(5):e1003347. · 8.06 Impact Factor