Acute Kidney Injury Is Associated with Increased Hospital Mortality after Stroke
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Information about the incidence of AKI and its effect on stroke outcomes is limited. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a registry of subjects with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) hospitalized at a single academic medical center. Admission creatinine was considered to be the baseline. AKI was defined as a creatinine increase during hospitalization of 0.3 mg/dL or a percentage increase of at least 50% from baseline. Multivariate logistic regression models were created for both stroke types, with hospital mortality as the outcome. Covariates included gender, race, age, admission creatinine, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, the performance of a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the head and neck, and medical comorbidities. RESULTS: There were 528 cases of ischemic stroke with 70 deaths (13%), and 829 cases of ICH with 268 deaths (32%). The mean age was 64 years; 56% of patients were men and 71% were white. AKI complicated 14% of ischemic stroke and 21% of ICH hospitalizations. In multivariate analysis stratified by stroke type, AKI was associated with increased hospital mortality from ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-6.35) but not ICH (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.50-1.35), except for those surviving at least 2 days (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.18-3.77). CONCLUSIONS: AKI occurs frequently after stroke and is associated with increased hospital mortality. Additional studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if measures to prevent AKI would result in decreased mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The effect of acute kidney injury (AKI) on outcomes of transient ischemic attack (TIA) is largely unknown. We wanted to determine the impact of AKI on the outcomes of patients admitted with TIA. Methods: Data from all adult patients admitted to the U.S. hospitals between 2005 and 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of TIA and secondary diagnosis of AKI were included, using the nationwide in-patient dataset. The association of AKI with TIA-related mortality and discharge outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 1,173,340 patients admitted with TIA, 45,974 (3.8%) had AKI. Dialysis was required in 29 (0.06%) patients. TIA patients with AKI had higher rates of moderate-to-severe disability (21.2 vs. 13.7%, p ≤ 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (0.6 vs. 0.1%, p ≤ 0.0001) compared with those without AKI. After adjusting for age, sex, and potential confounders; TIA patients with AKI had higher odds of moderate-to-severe disability [OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4, p < 0.0001] and death (OR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0-6.1, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: AKI in patients with TIA is associated with significantly higher rates of moderate-to-severe disability at discharge and in-hospital mortality compared with those without AKI. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.American Journal of Nephrology 10/2014; 40(3):258-262. DOI:10.1159/000367855 · 2.65 Impact Factor
Article: Brain-kidney crosstalk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Encephalopathy and altered higher mental functions are common clinical complications of acute kidney injury. Although sepsis is a major triggering factor, acute kidney injury predisposes to confusion by causing generalised inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, exacerbated by hyperosmolarity and metabolic acidosis due to the retention of products of nitrogen metabolism potentially resulting in increased brain water content. Downregulation of cell membrane transporters predisposes to alterations in neurotransmitter secretion and uptake, coupled with drug accumulation increasing the risk of encephalopathy. On the other hand, acute brain injury can induce a variety of changes in renal function ranging from altered function and electrolyte imbalances to inflammatory changes in brain death kidney donors.Critical care (London, England) 06/2014; 18(3):225. DOI:10.1186/cc13907
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ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure (ARF) in setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with worse outcome. We sought to determine the prevalence of ARF and effect on outcomes of patients with AIS. Data from all patients admitted to US hospitals between 2002 and 2010 with a primary discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke and secondary diagnosis of ARF were included. The effect of ARF on rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and discharge outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. Of 7 068 334 patients with AIS, 372 223 (5.3%) had ARF during hospitalization. Dialysis was required in 2364 (0.6%) of 372 223 patients. Patients with AIS with ARF had higher rates of moderate to severe disability (41.3% versus 30%; P<0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (1.0% versus 0.5%; P<0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (8.4% versus 2.9%; P<0.0001) compared with those without ARF. After adjusting for confounding factors, patients with AIS with ARF had higher odds of moderate to severe disability (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.4; P<0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.6; P<0.0001), and death (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.2; P<0.0001). ARF in patients with AIS is associated with significantly higher rates of moderate to severe disability at discharge and in-hospital mortality.Stroke 03/2014; 45(5). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004672 · 6.02 Impact Factor