Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Information about the incidence of AKI and its effect on stroke outcomes is limited.
Data were analyzed from a registry of subjects with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) hospitalized at a single academic medical center. Admission creatinine was considered to be the baseline. AKI was defined as a creatinine increase during hospitalization of 0.3 mg/dL or a percentage increase of at least 50% from baseline. Multivariate logistic regression models were created for both stroke types, with hospital mortality as the outcome. Covariates included gender, race, age, admission creatinine, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, the performance of a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the head and neck, and medical comorbidities.
There were 528 cases of ischemic stroke with 70 deaths (13%), and 829 cases of ICH with 268 deaths (32%). The mean age was 64 years; 56% of patients were men and 71% were white. AKI complicated 14% of ischemic stroke and 21% of ICH hospitalizations. In multivariate analysis stratified by stroke type, AKI was associated with increased hospital mortality from ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-6.35) but not ICH (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.50-1.35), except for those surviving at least 2 days (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.18-3.77).
AKI occurs frequently after stroke and is associated with increased hospital mortality. Additional studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if measures to prevent AKI would result in decreased mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify all interventions that increase or reduce mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and to establish the agreement between stated beliefs and actual practice in this setting.
Systematic literature review and international web-based survey.
More than 300 physicians from 62 countries.
Several databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, were searched with no time limits (updated February 14, 2012) to identify all the drugs/techniques/strategies that fulfilled all the following criteria: (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal, (b) dealing with critically ill adult patients with or at risk for acute kidney injury, and (c) reporting a statistically significant reduction or increase in mortality.
Of the 18 identified interventions, 15 reduced mortality and 3 increased mortality. Perioperative hemodynamic optimization, albumin in cirrhotic patients, terlipressin for hepatorenal syndrome type 1, human immunoglobulin, peri-angiography hemofiltration, fenoldopam, plasma exchange in multiple-myeloma-associated AKI, increased intensity of renal replacement therapy (RRT), CVVH in severely burned patients, vasopressin in septic shock, furosemide by continuous infusion, citrate in continuous RRT, N-acetylcysteine, continuous and early RRT might reduce mortality in critically ill patients with or at risk for AKI; positive fluid balance, hydroxyethyl starch and loop diuretics might increase mortality in critically ill patients with or at risk for AKI. Web-based opinion differed from consensus opinion for 30% of interventions and self-reported practice for 3 interventions.
The authors identified all interventions with at least 1 study suggesting a significant effect on mortality in patients with or at risk of AKI and found that there is discordance between participant stated beliefs and actual practice regarding these topics.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 10/2013; 27(6). DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.06.028 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure (ARF) in setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with worse outcome. We sought to determine the prevalence of ARF and effect on outcomes of patients with AIS.
Data from all patients admitted to US hospitals between 2002 and 2010 with a primary discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke and secondary diagnosis of ARF were included. The effect of ARF on rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and discharge outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis.
Of 7 068 334 patients with AIS, 372 223 (5.3%) had ARF during hospitalization. Dialysis was required in 2364 (0.6%) of 372 223 patients. Patients with AIS with ARF had higher rates of moderate to severe disability (41.3% versus 30%; P<0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (1.0% versus 0.5%; P<0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (8.4% versus 2.9%; P<0.0001) compared with those without ARF. After adjusting for confounding factors, patients with AIS with ARF had higher odds of moderate to severe disability (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.4; P<0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.6; P<0.0001), and death (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.2; P<0.0001).
ARF in patients with AIS is associated with significantly higher rates of moderate to severe disability at discharge and in-hospital mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encephalopathy and altered higher mental functions are common clinical complications of acute kidney injury. Although sepsis is a major triggering factor, acute kidney injury predisposes to confusion by causing generalised inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, exacerbated by hyperosmolarity and metabolic acidosis due to the retention of products of nitrogen metabolism potentially resulting in increased brain water content. Downregulation of cell membrane transporters predisposes to alterations in neurotransmitter secretion and uptake, coupled with drug accumulation increasing the risk of encephalopathy. On the other hand, acute brain injury can induce a variety of changes in renal function ranging from altered function and electrolyte imbalances to inflammatory changes in brain death kidney donors.
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