Passing the baton: the HIF switch.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia is an inadequate oxygen supply to tissues and cells, which can restrict their function. The hypoxic response is primarily mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, HIF-1 and HIF-2, which have both overlapping and unique target genes. HIF target gene activation is highly context specific and is not a reliable indicator of which HIF-α isoform is active. For example, in some cell lines, the individual HIFs have specific temporal and functional roles: HIF-1 drives the initial response to hypoxia (<24h) and HIF-2 drives the chronic response (>24h). Here, we review the significance of the HIF switch and the relation between HIF-1 and HIF-2 under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Key words: Breast neoplasms, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), neovascularization, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), leptin (LEP), prolactin (PRL). abstract Background: Hypoxia is a critical event in tumor neovascularization process. It affects prolactin (PRL) and stimulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) which can induce other genes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and leptin (LEP).Austral - Asian Journal of Cancer. 10/2012; 11(4):237-246.
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ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with lung and wound infections. Hypoxia is a frequent feature of the microenvironment of infected tissues which induces the expression of genes associated with innate immunity and inflammation in host cells primarily through the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) pathways which are regulated by oxygen-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases. Hypoxia also affects virulence and antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, less is known about the impact of hypoxia on host-pathogen interactions such as bacterial adhesion and infection. In the current study, we demonstrate that hypoxia decreases the internalization of P. aeruginosa into cultured epithelial cells resulting in decreased host cell death. This response can also be elicited by the hydroxylase inhibitor Dimethyloxallyl Glycine (DMOG). Reducing HIF-2α expression or Rho kinase activity diminished the effects of hypoxia on P. aeruginosa infection. Furthermore, in an in vivo pneumonia infection model, application of DMOG 48 h before infection with P. aeruginosa significantly reduced mortality. Thus, hypoxia reduces P. aeruginosa internalization into epithelial cells and pharmacologic manipulation of the host pathways involved may represent new therapeutic targets in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56491. · 3.73 Impact Factor