Passing the baton: the HIF switch.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia is an inadequate oxygen supply to tissues and cells, which can restrict their function. The hypoxic response is primarily mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, HIF-1 and HIF-2, which have both overlapping and unique target genes. HIF target gene activation is highly context specific and is not a reliable indicator of which HIF-α isoform is active. For example, in some cell lines, the individual HIFs have specific temporal and functional roles: HIF-1 drives the initial response to hypoxia (<24h) and HIF-2 drives the chronic response (>24h). Here, we review the significance of the HIF switch and the relation between HIF-1 and HIF-2 under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently display inactivation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene leading to increased level of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). In this study, we investigated the potential role of HIF-2α in regulating RCC susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing. We demonstrated that the RCC cell line 786-0 with mutated VHL was resistant to NK-mediated lysis as compared to the VHL-corrected cell line (WT7). This resistance was found to require HIF-2α stabilization. Based on global gene expression profiling and ChIP assay, we found ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1) as a direct novel target of HIF-2α and targeting ITPR1 significantly increased susceptibility of 786-0 cells to NK-mediated lysis. Mechanistically, HIF-2α in 786-0 cells lead to overexpression of ITPR1, which subsequently regulated the NK mediated killing through the activation of autophagy in target cells by NK derived signal. Interestingly, both ITPR1 and Beclin-1 silencing in 786-0 cells inhibited NK-induced autophagy and subsequently increased Granzyme B activity in target cells. Finally, in vivo ITPR1 targeting significantly enhanced the NK-mediated tumor regression. Our data provide insights into the link between HIF-2α, the ITPR1-related pathway and natural immunity and strongly suggest a role for the HIF-2α /ITPR1 axis in regulating RCC cell survival.Cancer Research 10/2014; · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiology studies have established a strong link between lung cancer and arsenic exposure. Currently, the role of disturbed cellular energy metabolism in carcinogenesis is a focus of scientific interest. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1A) is a key regulator of energy metabolism, and it has been found to accumulate during arsenite exposure under oxygen-replete conditions. We modeled arsenic-exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro with BEAS-2B, a non-malignant lung epithelial cell line. Constant exposure to 1 microM arsenite (As) resulted in the early loss of anchorage-dependent growth, measured by soft agar colony formation, beginning at 6 weeks of exposure. This arsenite exposure resulted in HIF-1A accumulation and increased glycolysis, similar to the physiologic response to hypoxia, but in this case under oxygen-replete conditions. This "pseudo-hypoxia" response was necessary for the maximal acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in arsenite-exposed BEAS-2B. The HIF-1A accumulation and induction in glycolysis was sustained throughout a 52 week course of arsenite exposure in BEAS-2B. There was a time-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth during the exposure to arsenite. When HIF-1A expression was stably suppressed, arsenite-induced glycolysis was abrogated, and the anchorage-independent growth was reduced. These findings establish that arsenite exerts a hypoxia-mimetic effect, which plays an important role in the subsequent gain of malignancy-associated phenotypes.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e114549. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the predominant cell type in tumor microenvironment (TM) and featured with the distinct energy metabolism reprogramming (EMR) phenotype caused by many factors such as hypoxia and growth factors. The EMR of CAFs plays a key role in biological behaviors of cancer cells including proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, accumulative evidences indicate that oxidative stress (OS) mediates the EMR of CAFs under condtions of various stimuli. However, the precise mechanism by which OS causes the EMR of CAFs is not clear. Interestingly, our previous work suggested that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling is activated independent of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in CAFs derived from human breast cancers compared with paired normal fibroblasts (NFs). Recent studies have shown that ATM protein kinase, as a redox sensor, is closely associated with cellular energy metabolism. Thus, it is very possible that ATM protein kinase regulates the EMR of CAFs. So, it is necessary to perform an integral study on how oxidized ATM regulates the EMR of CAFs in response to various stimuli evoking OS. This will facilitate to develop a new powerful strategy of preventing and treating cancers.Cancer Letters 07/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor