Temporary clamping of drain combined with tranexamic acid reduce blood loss after total knee arthroplasty: A prospective randomized controlled trial

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (Impact Factor: 1.72). 07/2012; 13(1):124. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-13-124
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with a significant blood loss. Several methods have been reported to reduce postoperative blood loss and avoid homologous blood transfusions. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of temporary clamping of the drain either or not in combination with tranexamic acid administration for controlling blood loss after TKA.
The prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study was conducted in our institute. Total of 240 patients, who diagnosed primary osteoarthritis and scheduled to undergo a primary TKA,,were randomized into one of the four groups: Group A or control group, the drain was not clamped and the patient received a placebo; Group B, the drain was not clamped and the patient received tranexamic acid; Group C, the drain was clamped and the patient received a placebo; and Group D, the drain was clamped and the patient received tranexamic acid. The volume of drained blood at 48 hours postoperatively, the decreasing of hemoglobin (Hb) level at 12 hours postoperatively and the number of patients requiring blood transfusion were recorded and compared.
The mean postoperative volumes of drained blood and the amount of blood transfusion in the three study groups (group B, C and D) were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05), which group D had the lowest values. Furthermore, group B and D could maintain the Hb level better than group A and C (p < 0.001). In terms of blood transfusions rate, although the patients in group D required transfusion less than group A and C (p < 0.05), there was no significant difference between group D and B. The relative risks for transfusion requirement were 4.4 for group A, 1.4 for group B and 3.0 for group C when compared to group D.
The clamping of drain combined with tranexamic acid administration could reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA, significantly greater than using tranexamic acid or drain clamping alone. NCT01449552.

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Available from: Chaturong Pornrattanamaneewong, May 14, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the visible, hidden, total blood loss and postoperative haemodynamic change of 4-h clamping and nonclamping of the drain after TKA. The hypothesis in the present study was that intermittent drain clamping with injection of diluted epinephrine solution would decrease the visible, hidden blood loss and reduction of postoperative haemoglobin or haematocrit change after TKA. Methods: From January 2010 to January 2011, 100 TKAs were performed at our hospital. In group I (50 knees), drainage was clamped for the first 4 postoperative hours with injection of diluted epinephrine solution. In group II (50 knees), drainage was not clamped without injection of diluted epinephrine solution. Two drains with an external diameter of 3.2 mm were inserted into the knee joint. We checked the amount of drainage recorded at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. Also, we checked the haemoglobin and haematocrit on the preoperation, first, 5th and 10th postoperative days. We analysed the transfusion rate, the possible adverse issues with clamping drainage, and the range of motion of the knee. Results: The mean total bloody drainage was significantly less in group I than group II (560.7 ± 249.9 mL vs 978.3 ± 327.5 mL) (p < 0.001). The decrease of haemoglobin and haematocrit after surgery was not significant between the two groups (n.s.). The hidden blood loss was significantly more in group I than group II (541.1 ± 439.4 mL vs 32.1 ± 21.9 mL) (p < 0.001). So, total blood loss showed no significant difference between the two groups (1,101.8 ± 373.6 mL vs 1,010.4 ± 385.9 mL) (n.s.). The postoperative range of motion and transfusion rate between the two groups were not significant (n.s.). But immediate wound problem, such as oozing, was significantly more in group I (p < 0.001). Conclusion: It is not necessary to perform the intermittent drain clamping with injection of the diluted epinephrine solution in TKA because there is no impact on the postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit. If anything, the intermittent drain clamping with injection of the diluted epinephrine solution increased the hidden blood loss and immediate wound problem than nonclamping without injection of the diluted epinephrine solution.
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    ABSTRACT: Tranexamic acid (TNA) reduces postoperative blood loss in general and obstetrical surgery but there is limited orthopaedic literature regarding its use in the topical setting. To study the effect of topical TNA after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 101 patients were randomized to topical administration of 2.0g TNA in 75mL of normal saline (50 patients) or placebo (51 patients). Operative technique, drug administration, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were standardized. All patients underwent screening ultrasound of the operative extremity. Total blood loss was lower in the TNA group (940.2±327.1mL) than the placebo group (1293.1±532.7mL)(P<0.001), and four patients in the placebo group and none in the TNA group received postoperative transfusion (P=0.118). We recommend administration of topical TNA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compared simultaneous and two-staged (stages 1 and 2 with 8-month interval on average) bilateral TKAs in terms of postoperative serological status and clinical consequences. The decrease in hemoglobin over 2weeks postoperatively was similar between groups. C-reactive protein levels and creatine phosphokinase index peaking on day 2 were significantly higher in the simultaneous group than in either staged group (P<0.05). Incidence of DVT on day 7 tended to be higher in the simultaneous group, but the difference was not significant. Considering the approximately 8-month interval and 2-month earlier functional recovery with stage 2 TKAs, 6months were saved with the simultaneous bilateral TKA group. Collectively, simultaneous bilateral TKA is likely to offer a safe and effective procedure in appropriate clinical settings involving anti-bleeding and anti-venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.
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