Measures of Social Deprivation That Predict Health Care Access and Need within a Rational Area of Primary Care Service Delivery
The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT. Health Services Research
(Impact Factor: 2.78).
07/2012; 48(2). DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01449.x
OBJECTIVE: To develop a measure of social deprivation that is associated with health care access and health outcomes at a novel geographic level, primary care service area. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary analysis of data from the Dartmouth Atlas, AMA Masterfile, National Provider Identifier data, Small Area Health Insurance Estimates, American Community Survey, Area Resource File, and Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data were aggregated to primary care service areas (PCSAs). STUDY DESIGN: Social deprivation variables were selected from literature review and international examples. Factor analysis was used. Correlation and multivariate analyses were conducted between index, health outcomes, and measures of health care access. The derived index was compared with poverty as a predictor of health outcomes. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Variables not available at the PCSA level were estimated at block level, then aggregated to PCSA level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our social deprivation index is positively associated with poor access and poor health outcomes. This pattern holds in multivariate analyses controlling for other measures of access. A multidimensional measure of deprivation is more strongly associated with health outcomes than a measure of poverty alone. CONCLUSIONS: This geographic index has utility for identifying areas in need of assistance and is timely for revision of 35-year-old provider shortage and geographic underservice designation criteria used to allocate federal resources.
Available from: Danielle C Butler
- "Physician Masterfile. These datasets have been used in multiple analyses of relationships with outcomes [1,10-12]. Occasionally, surveys are also used to assess the geographical distribution of physicians . In Canada, the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) aggregates physician benefits information from provincial government into a comprehensive database called the National Physician Database. "
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ABSTRACT: Good quality spatial data on Family Physicians or General Practitioners (GPs) are key to accurately measuring geographic access to primary health care. The validity of computed associations between health outcomes and measures of GP access such as GP density is contingent on geographical data quality. This is especially true in rural and remote areas, where GPs are often small in number and geographically dispersed. However, there has been limited effort in assessing the quality of nationally comprehensive, geographically explicit, GP datasets in Australia or elsewhere.Our objective is to assess the extent of association or agreement between different spatially explicit nationwide GP workforce datasets in Australia. This is important since disagreement would imply differential relationships with primary healthcare relevant outcomes with different datasets. We also seek to enumerate these associations across categories of rurality or remoteness.
We compute correlations of GP headcounts and workload contributions between four different datasets at two different geographical scales, across varying levels of rurality and remoteness.
The datasets are in general agreement with each other at two different scales. Small numbers of absolute headcounts, with relatively larger fractions of locum GPs in rural areas cause unstable statistical estimates and divergences between datasets.
In the Australian context, many of the available geographic GP workforce datasets may be used for evaluating valid associations with health outcomes. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting associations between GP headcounts or workloads and outcomes in rural and remote areas. The methods used in these analyses may be replicated in other locales with multiple GP or physician datasets.
BMC Health Services Research 09/2013; 13(1):343. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-343 · 1.71 Impact Factor
Available from: Maruí Weber Corseuil
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe prevalence, awareness, and treatment of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated factors among the elderly in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This cross-sectional population-based study used a complex sampling design. HBP was defined as elevated blood pressure (by direct measurement), use of antihypertensive medication, or prior diagnosis. The association of outcomes with independent variables was assessed by Poisson regression. One-thousand seven hundred and five participants were interviewed. Of these, 84.6% presented HBP, 77.5% were aware of their condition, and 79.1% were on antihypertensive medication. Prevalence of HBP was associated with age, functional capacity, and body mass index (BMI). Awareness of the condition was associated with age, gender, BMI, self-rated health, and recent medical consultation. Treatment was associated with gender, functional capacity, self-rated health, and recent medical consultation. Although public health policies should include everyone, unequal distribution of HBP in the population should be addressed through targeted preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 03/2013; 29(3):507-21. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of aberrant blood vessel development characterised by arteriovenous malformations. HHT is associated with significant morbidity due to complications including epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding and stroke. We explored the hypothesis that a diagnosis of HHT is associated with sex, socioeconomic status and geographical location.
We used The Health Improvement Network, a longitudinal, computerised general practice database covering 5% of the UK population to calculate prevalence estimates for HHT stratified by age, sex, socioeconomic status and geographical location.
The 2010 UK point prevalence for HHT was 1.06/10 000 person years (95% CI 0.95 to 1.17) or 1 in 9400 individuals. The diagnosed prevalence of HHT was significantly higher in women compared with men (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.88) and in those from the most affluent socioeconomic group compared with the least (adjusted PRR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.64). The PRR varied between different regions of the UK, being highest in the South West and lowest in the West Midlands (adjusted PRR for former compared with latter 1.86, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.15).
HHT prevalence is more common in the UK population than previously demonstrated, though this updated figure is still likely to be an underestimate. HHT appears to be significantly under-diagnosed in men, which is likely to reflect their lower rates of consultation with primary care services. There is under-diagnosis in patients from lower socioeconomic groups and a marked variation in the prevalence of diagnosis between different geographical regions across the UK that requires further investigation.
Thorax 11/2013; 69(2). DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203720 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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