Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis.
ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose: To analyze trends in invasive cervical cancer incidence by age, histology, and race over a 35-year period (1973-2007) in order to gain insight into changes in the presentation of cervical cancer. Methods: Data from the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries that continuously collected information on invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for trends. Standardized to the 2000 U.S population, annual age-adjusted incidence rates were estimated by race and histologic subtype. Histologic subtype was classified into squamous, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous. Results: Overall incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer decreased by 54% over the 35 years, from 13.07/100,000 (1973-1975) to 6.01/100,000 (2006-2007), and the incidence rates declined by 51% and 70.2%, respectively, among whites and blacks. The incidence rates for squamous carcinoma decreased by 61.1% from 10.2/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.97/100,000 (2006-2007). Incidence rates for adenosquamous cell carcinomas decreased by 16% from 0.27/100,000 (1973-1975) to 0.23/100,000 (2006-2007), and incidence rates for adenocarcinomas increased by 32.2% from 1.09/100,000 (1973-1975) to 1.44/100,000 (2006-2007). This increase in adenocarcinomas was due to an increase in incidence in white women; a decrease in incidence was observed for black women. Conclusions: Although marked reductions in the overall and race-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer have been achieved, they mask important variation by histologic subtype. These findings suggest that alternatives to Pap smear-based screening, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV vaccination, need to be prioritized if adenocarcinomas of the cervix are to be controlled.
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ABSTRACT: While rates of cervical squamous cell carcinoma have been declining, rates of cervical adenocarcinoma are increasing in some countries. Outcomes for advanced cervical adenocarcinoma remain poor. Precision mapping of genetic alterations in cervical adenocarcinoma may enable better selection of therapies and deliver improved outcomes when combined with new sequencing diagnostics. We present whole-exome sequencing results from 15 cervical adenocarcinomas and paired normal samples from Hong Kong Chinese women. These data revealed a heterogeneous mutation spectrum and identified several frequently altered genes including FAT1, ARID1A, ERBB2, and PIK3CA. Exome sequencing identified human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences in 13 tumors in which the HPV genome might have integrated into and hence disrupted the functions of certain exons, raising the possibility that HPV integration can alter pathways other than p53 and pRb. Together, these provisionary data suggest the potential for individualized therapies for cervical adenocarcinoma based on genomic information. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 UICC.International Journal of Cancer 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29456 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Screening for cervical cancer with DNA ploidy assessment by automated quantitative image cytometry has spread throughout China over the past decade and now an estimated 1 million tests per year are done there. Compared to conventional liquid based cytology, DNA ploidy has competitive accuracy with much higher throughput per technician. DNA ploidy has the enormous advantage that it is an objective technology that can be taught in typically 2 or 3 wk, unlike qualitative cytology, and so it can enable screening in places that lack sufficient qualified cytotechnologists and cytopathologists for conventional cytology. Most papers on experience with application of the technology to cervical cancer screening over the past decade were published in the Chinese language. This review aims to provide a consistent framework for analysis of screening data and to summarize some of the work published from 2005 to the end of 2013. Of particular interest are a few studies comparing DNA ploidy with testing for high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) which suggest that DNA ploidy is at least equivalent, easier and less expensive than hrHPV testing. There may also be patient management benefits to combining hrHPV testing with DNA ploidy. Some knowledge gaps are identified and some suggestions are made for future research directions.12/2014; 5(5):931-965. DOI:10.5306/wjco.v5.i5.931
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ABSTRACT: Worldwide, cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality among women, causing 265,653 deaths annually. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for 75 % of cervical cancer cases in the USA, while adenocarcinoma (AC) accounts for 25 %. The incidence of SCC is decreasing in the USA, yet AC is increasing. Many differences exist between cervical SCC and AC including anatomic origin, risk factors, prognosis, dissemination, sites of recurrence, and rates of metastasis. Despite differences, current treatment algorithms do not distinguish between cervical SCC and AC. To date, prospective research directed toward AC is limited. We review published differences in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy with radiation, the role of adjuvant radical hysterectomy, and optimal chemotherapy for cervical AC. Cervical AC is sufficiently distinct from SCC to warrant specific treatment recommendations; however, lack of data evaluating AC limit recommendations. Additional prospective AC cervix specific research is needed.Current Oncology Reports 04/2015; 17(4):440. DOI:10.1007/s11912-015-0440-6 · 2.87 Impact Factor