Cervical Cancer Trends in the United States: A 35-Year Population-Based Analysis

1 Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 2.05). 07/2012; 21(10):1031-7. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3385
Source: PubMed


To analyze trends in invasive cervical cancer incidence by age, histology, and race over a 35-year period (1973-2007) in order to gain insight into changes in the presentation of cervical cancer.

Data from the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries that continuously collected information on invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for trends. Standardized to the 2000 U.S population, annual age-adjusted incidence rates were estimated by race and histologic subtype. Histologic subtype was classified into squamous, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous.

Overall incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer decreased by 54% over the 35 years, from 13.07/100,000 (1973-1975) to 6.01/100,000 (2006-2007), and the incidence rates declined by 51% and 70.2%, respectively, among whites and blacks. The incidence rates for squamous carcinoma decreased by 61.1% from 10.2/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.97/100,000 (2006-2007). Incidence rates for adenosquamous cell carcinomas decreased by 16% from 0.27/100,000 (1973-1975) to 0.23/100,000 (2006-2007), and incidence rates for adenocarcinomas increased by 32.2% from 1.09/100,000 (1973-1975) to 1.44/100,000 (2006-2007). This increase in adenocarcinomas was due to an increase in incidence in white women; a decrease in incidence was observed for black women.

Although marked reductions in the overall and race-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer have been achieved, they mask important variation by histologic subtype. These findings suggest that alternatives to Pap smear-based screening, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV vaccination, need to be prioritized if adenocarcinomas of the cervix are to be controlled.

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    • "Considering that the incidence of adenocarcinoma histology in cervical cancer was recently reported to be as high as 32%, the significance of adenocarcinoma histology as a prognostic variable should be thoroughly investigated (Adegoke et al, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In this study, we sought to identify a criterion for the intermediate-risk grouping of patients with cervical cancer who exhibit any intermediate-risk factor after radical hysterectomy. Methods: In total, 2158 patients with pathologically proven stage IB–IIA cervical cancer with any intermediate-risk factor after radical hysterectomy were randomly assigned to two groups, a development group and a validation group, at a ratio of 3 : 1 (1620 patients:538 patients). To predict recurrence, multivariate models were developed using the development group. The ability of the models to discriminate between groups was validated using the log-rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Four factors (histology, tumour size, deep stromal invasion (DSI), and lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI)) were significantly associated with disease recurrence and included in the models. Among the nine possible combinations of the four variables, models consisting of any two of the four intermediate-risk factors (tumour size ⩾3 cm, DSI of the outer third of the cervix, LVSI, and adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma histology) demonstrated the best performance for predicting recurrence. Conclusion: This study identified a ‘four-factor model' in which the presence of any two factors may be useful for predicting recurrence in patients with cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy.
    British Journal of Cancer 12/2013; 110(2). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.716 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Cytological screening has reduced the incidence of SCC (33), whereas the incidence of adenocarcinomas is increasing (33,34). This may indicate that cytological screening is unable to identify females at risk of adenocarcinoma. "
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of cervical adenocarcinoma have been increasing over the last two decades, contrary to those of squamous cell carcinoma. This trend is particularly evident among females aged <40 years and has occurred despite extensive cytology-based screening programs. The aim of the present retrospective database study was to investigate adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) with respect to previous cytological results, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and histological results from AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa. Databases were used to identify 32 female patients with AIS treated for various conditions between 2009 and 2012 at the Department of Gynecology, Uppsala University Hospital (Uppsala, Sweden) and previous cytological, HPV and histological results. Of the individuals in the study, 64.3% had a previously recorded cytological result showing squamous cell abnormalities; five had glandular cell abnormalities (18%) and two had AIS (7.1%). Among the patients with available HPV results, 95% were HR-HPV-positive; HPV18/45 predominated (77%), followed by HPV16 (27%). The patients with multiple HPV infections were aged ≤32 years, while patients aged ≥38 years were only infected with HPV18/45. All but three patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in the AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa, 79% of which was CIN2 or worse. The present retrospective database study suggests that AIS is detected at screening mainly due to simultaneous squamous precursor lesions and that HPV18/45 infection is an increasing cofactor for AIS in older patients. HPV analyses of glandular precursor lesions aid in the identification of female individuals at risk of progression to invasive disease, and thus have a favorable effect on adenocarcinoma prevention, together with vaccination.
    Oncology letters 07/2013; 6(1):215-219. DOI:10.3892/ol.2013.1350 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To document screening test histories of women with histopathologic cervical glandular neoplasia (CGN) in a large integrated health system using new methods of cervical screening. Methods: Cervical screening test results were reviewed for 265 patients with histopathologic diagnoses of CGN, including 168 adenocarcinoma in situ, 80 invasive cervical adenocarcinoma, and 17 invasive cervical adenosquamous carcinoma cases. Results: Among 222 cases with known triggers of diagnostic studies, 211 (95%) had recent abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. Glandular cell abnormalities were the most common recent abnormal Pap test finding in 130 (61.6%) of 211; squamous cell abnormalities alone were documented in 81 (38.4%) of 211, reflecting coexisting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 60% of CGN cases. Among 114 CGN cases with additional Pap tests more than 4 months to 3 years before CGN diagnosis, 70 (61.4%) had only earlier negative Pap test results. Among 72 CGN cases with recent human papillomavirus (HPV) test results, 70 (97.2%) tested HPV positive. Among 29 CGN cases with HPV test results more than 4 months to 3 years before CGN diagnosis, 25 (86.2%) tested HPV positive. Conclusions: Conservative cytologic screening practices and HPV cotesting can facilitate early diagnoses of CGN.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2013; 140(1):47-54. DOI:10.1309/AJCPIP9M8HPVBSSC · 2.51 Impact Factor
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