Isoflurane binds and stabilizes a closed conformation of the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that isoflurane targets lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a critical adhesion molecule for leukocyte arrest. However, it remains to be determined how isoflurane interacts with the full ectodomain LFA-1 and modulates its conformation and function. Isoflurane binding sites on the full ectodomain LFA-1 were probed by photolabeling using photoactivatable isoflurane (azi-isoflurane). The adducted residues were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Separately, docking simulations were performed to predict binding sites. Point mutations were introduced around isoflurane binding sites. The significance of isoflurane's effect was assessed in both intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) binding assays and epitope mapping of activation-sensitive antibodies using flow cytometry. Two isoflurane binding sites were identified using photolabeling and were further validated by the docking simulation: one at the hydrophobic pocket in the ICAM-1 binding domain (the αI domain); the other at the βI domain. Mutagenesis of the α'1 helix showed that isoflurane binding sites at the βI domain were significantly important in modulating LFA-1 function and conformation. Epitope mapping using activation-sensitive antibodies suggested that isoflurane stabilized LFA-1 in the closed conformation. This study suggested that isoflurane binds to both the αI and βI domains allosteric to the ICAM-1 binding site, and that isoflurane binding stabilizes LFA-1 in the closed conformation.-Yuki, K., Bu, W., Xi, J., Sen, M., Shimaoka, M., Eckenhof, R.G. Isoflurane binds and stabilizes a closed conformation of the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.
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ABSTRACT: In clinical reports, the usage of isoflurane and sevoflurane was associated with more surgical field bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgeries as compared to propofol. The activation of platelet receptor αIIbβ3 is a crucial event for platelet aggregation and clot stability. Here we studied the effect of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and propofol on the activation of αIIbβ3. The effect of anesthetics on the activation of αIIbβ3 was probed using the activation sensitive antibody PAC-1 in both cell-based (platelets and αIIbβ3 transfectants) and cell-free assays. The binding sites of isoflurane on αIIbβ3 were explored using photoactivatable isoflurane (azi-isoflurane). The functional implication of revealed isoflurane binding sites were studied using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Isoflurane and sevoflurane diminished the binding of PAC-1 to wild-type αIIbβ3 transfectants, but not to the high-affinity mutant, β3-N305T. Both anesthetics also impaired PAC-1 binding in a cell-free assay. In contrast, propofol did not affect the activation of αIIbβ3. Residues adducted by azi-isoflurane were near the calcium binding site (an important regulatory site termed SyMBS) just outside of the ligand binding site. The mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that these adducted residues were important in regulating integrin activation. Isoflurane and sevoflurane, but not propofol, impaired the activation of αIIbβ3. Azi-isoflurane binds to the regulatory site of integrin αIIbβ3, thereby suggesting that isoflurane blocks ligand binding of αIIbβ3 in not a competitive, but an allosteric manner.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60415. · 3.73 Impact Factor