Isoflurane binds and stabilizes a closed conformation of the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that isoflurane targets lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a critical adhesion molecule for leukocyte arrest. However, it remains to be determined how isoflurane interacts with the full ectodomain LFA-1 and modulates its conformation and function. Isoflurane binding sites on the full ectodomain LFA-1 were probed by photolabeling using photoactivatable isoflurane (azi-isoflurane). The adducted residues were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Separately, docking simulations were performed to predict binding sites. Point mutations were introduced around isoflurane binding sites. The significance of isoflurane's effect was assessed in both intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) binding assays and epitope mapping of activation-sensitive antibodies using flow cytometry. Two isoflurane binding sites were identified using photolabeling and were further validated by the docking simulation: one at the hydrophobic pocket in the ICAM-1 binding domain (the αI domain); the other at the βI domain. Mutagenesis of the α'1 helix showed that isoflurane binding sites at the βI domain were significantly important in modulating LFA-1 function and conformation. Epitope mapping using activation-sensitive antibodies suggested that isoflurane stabilized LFA-1 in the closed conformation. This study suggested that isoflurane binds to both the αI and βI domains allosteric to the ICAM-1 binding site, and that isoflurane binding stabilizes LFA-1 in the closed conformation.-Yuki, K., Bu, W., Xi, J., Sen, M., Shimaoka, M., Eckenhof, R.G. Isoflurane binds and stabilizes a closed conformation of the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We previously demonstrated that propofol interacted with the leukocyte adhesion molecule leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and inhibited the production of interleukin-2 via LFA-1 in a dependent manner. However, the binding site(s) of propofol on LFA-1 remains unknown.METHODS:First, the inhibition of LFA-1's ligand binding by propofol was confirmed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ELISA-type assay. The binding site of propofol on LFA-1 was probed with a photolabeling experiment using a photoactivatable propofol analog called azi-propofol-m. The adducted residues of LFA-1 by this compound were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, the binding of propofol to the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 was examined using 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) displacement assay. Furthermore, the binding site(s) of 1-AMA and propofol on LFA-1 was studied using the docking program GLIDE.RESULTS:We demonstrated that propofol impaired the binding of LFA-1 to its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The photolabeling experiment demonstrated that the adducted residues were localized in the allosteric cavity of the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 called "lovastatin site." The shift of fluorescence spectra was observed when 1-AMA was coincubated with the low-affinity conformer of LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (wild-type [WT] αL I domain), not with the high-affinity conformer, suggesting that 1-AMA bound only to WT αL I domain. In the 1-AMA displacement assay, propofol decreased 1-AMA fluorescence signal (at 520 nm), suggesting that propofol competed with 1-AMA and bound to the WT αL I domain. The docking simulation demonstrated that both 1-AMA and propofol bound to the lovastatin site, which agreed with the photolabeling experiment.CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that propofol bound to the lovastatin site in LFA-1. Previously we showed that the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane bound to this site. Taken together, the lovastatin site is an example of the common binding sites for anesthetics currently used clinically.Anesthesia and analgesia 08/2013; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: General anesthetic photolabels are used to reveal molecular targets and molecular binding sites of anesthetic ligands. After identification, the relevance of anesthetic substrates or binding sites can be tested in biological systems. Halothane and photoactive analogs of isoflurane, propofol, etomidate, neurosteroids, anthracene, and long chain alcohols have been used in anesthetic photolabeling experiments. Interrogated protein targets include the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, GABAA receptor, tubulin, leukocyte function-associated antigen-1, and protein kinase C. In this review, we summarize insights revealed by photolabeling these targets, as well as general features of anesthetics, such as their propensity to partition to mitochondria and bind voltage-dependent anion channels. The theory of anesthetic photolabel design and the experimental application of photoactive ligands are also discussed.Current anesthesiology reports. 03/2014; 4(1):57-66.
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ABSTRACT: Isoflurane in clinical use is a racemate of S- and R-isoflurane. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effects of S-isoflurane on relevant anesthetic targets might be modestly stronger (less than 2-fold) than R-isoflurane. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the immunological target, leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) with racemic isoflurane suggested that only S-isoflurane bound specifically to this protein. If so, the use of specific isoflurane enantiomers may have advantage in the surgical settings where a wide range of inflammatory responses is expected to occur. Here, we have further tested the hypothesis that isoflurane enantioselectivity is apparent in solution binding and functional studies. First, binding of isoflurane enantiomers to LFA-1 was studied using 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) displacement assays. The binding site of each enantiomer on LFA-1 was studied using the docking program GLIDE. Functional studies employed the flow-cytometry based ICAM binding assay. Both enantiomers decreased 1-AMA fluorescence signal (at 520 nm), indicating that both competed with 1-AMA and bound to the αL I domain. The docking simulation demonstrated that both enantiomers bound to the LFA-1 "lovastatin site." ICAM binding assays showed that S-isoflurane inhibited more potently than R-isoflurane, consistent with the result of 1-AMA competition assay. In contrast with the x-ray crystallography, both enantiomers bound to and inhibited LFA-1. S-isoflurane showed slight preference over R-isoflurane.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96649. · 3.73 Impact Factor