Prognostic value of arginase-II expression and regulatory T-cell infiltration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are present in a variety of tumors and play a central role in antitumor immune responses. Nevertheless, most cancers progress probably because tumors are only weakly immunogenic and develop multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms. In the present study, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, we found high intraepithelial infiltration of regulatory FOXP3(+) T cells, and relatively high levels of BDCA2(+) and FOXP3(+) cells in stromal (peripheral) regions of the tumors. Tumor-infiltrating (intraepithelial) FOXP3(+) T cells were significantly more frequent in patients with oropharynx and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and in patients without lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, arginase-II (ARG2) was expressed by 60%, inducible nitric oxide synthetase by 9%, cyclooxygenase-2 by 43%, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) by 26% of tumors. Interestingly, the absence of ARG2 expression, enhanced stromal infiltration of CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells, and high numbers of FOXP3(+) T cells were each significantly associated with prolonged overall survival, and the latter two parameters were also confirmed by multivariate analysis. For disease-free survival, multivariate analysis revealed significant negative correlations with BCL2 and ARG2 expression by tumor cells. These findings shed new light on mechanisms of cancer progression, and provide rationales for therapeutic inhibition of immunosuppressive mechanisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of IFN-alpha is well established. However, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC), the major producer of IFN-alpha upon viral infection, in tumor biology is unknown. We sought to study the presence and function of PDC in a human solid tumor. Here, we demonstrate that PDCs infiltrate tumor tissue of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Functional activity of PDC was examined by using CpG motif containing oligonucleotides, a defined microbial stimulus for PDCs (recognized via toll-like receptor 9). We found that HNSCC diminished the ability of PDC to produce IFN-alpha in response to CpG motif containing oligonucleotide. Tumor-induced down-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 was identified as one mechanism likely contributing to impaired PDC function within the tumor environment. In tumor-draining lymph nodes, suppression of CpG-induced IFN-alpha production was less pronounced than in single-cell suspensions of primary tumor tissue. In these lymph nodes, CpG-induced IFN-alpha production was associated with increased levels of interferon-induced protein 10 and IFN-gamma and activation of CD4 and CD8 T cells. These results show for the first time the presence of PDCs in human solid tumor tissue and that tumors suppress the capacity of PDCs to produce IFN-alpha. PDCs, which in the absence of appropriate stimulation are reported to promote regulatory CD8 T cells, may contribute to an impaired T-cell-mediated immune response in HNSCC.Cancer Research 11/2003; 63(19):6478-87. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prognostic significance of FOXP3(+) lymphocyte (Treg) density in colorectal cancer compared with conventional histopathologic features and with CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocyte densities. Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the densities of CD8(+), CD45RO(+), and FOXP3(+) lymphocytes in tumor tissue and normal colonic mucosa from 967 stage II and stage III colorectal cancers. These were evaluated for associations with histopathologic features and patient survival. FOXP3(+) Treg density was higher in tumor tissue compared with normal colonic mucosa, whereas CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) cell densities were lower. FOXP3(+) Tregs were not associated with any histopathologic features, with the exception of tumor stage. Multivariate analysis showed that stage, vascular invasion, and FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal and tumor tissue were independent prognostic indicators, but not CD8(+) and CD45RO(+). High FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal mucosa was associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.13; P = .019). In contrast, a high density of FOXP3(+) Tregs in tumor tissue was associated with improved survival (HR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.77; P = .001). FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal and tumor tissue had stronger prognostic significance in colorectal cancer compared with CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes. The finding of improved survival associated with a high density of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) Tregs in colorectal cancer contrasts with several other solid cancer types. The inclusion of FOXP3(+) Treg density may help to improve the prognostication of early-stage colorectal cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2009; 27(2):186-92. · 18.04 Impact Factor
- Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2009; 99(5):269-72. · 2.64 Impact Factor