Endoplasmic reticulum enrollment in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a huge challenge for society and health care worldwide as molecular pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood and curative treatment does not exist. The mechanisms leading to accelerated neuronal cell death in AD are still largely unknown, but accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins has been identified as potentially involved. In the present review, we describe the essential role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in AD. Despite the function that mitochondria may play as the central major player in the apoptotic process, accumulating evidence highlights ER as a critical organelle in AD. Stress that impairs ER physiology leads to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, such as amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, the major component of amyloid plaques. In an attempt to ameliorate the accumulation of unfolded proteins, ER stress triggers a protective cellular mechanism, which includes the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, when activation of the UPR is severe or prolonged enough, the final cellular outcome is pathologic apoptotic cell death. Distinct pathways can be activated in this process, involving stress sensors such as the JNK pathway or ER chaperones such as Bip/GRP94, stress modulators such as Bcl-2 family proteins, or even stress effectors such as caspase-12. Here, we detail the involvement of the ER and associated stress pathways in AD and discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress.
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ABSTRACT: Investigation of the integrity of the ryanodine receptor in Alzheimer's disease is important because it plays a critical role in the regulation of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum in brain, impairment of which is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study compared ryanodine receptor levels and their functional modulation in particulate fractions from control and Alzheimer's disease temporal cortex, occipital cortex and putamen. Relationships between ryanodine receptor changes and the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology were determined by examining autoradiographic [3H]ryanodine binding in entorhinal cortex/anterior hippocampus sections from 22 cases that had been staged for neurofibrillary changes and beta-amyloid deposition. A significant (P < 0.02) 40% decrease in the Bmax for [3H]ryanodine binding and significantly higher IC50 values for both magnesium and Ruthenium Red inhibition of [3H]ryanodine binding were detected in Alzheimer's disease temporal cortex particulate fractions compared to controls. Immunoblot analyses showed Type 2 ryanodine receptor holoprotein levels to be decreased by 20% (P < 0.05) in these Alzheimer's disease cases compared to controls. No significant differences were detected in [3H]ryanodine binding comparing control and Alzheimer's disease occipital cortex or putamen samples. The autoradiography study detected increased [3H]ryanodine binding in the subiculum, CA2 and CA1 regions in cases with early (stage I-II) neurofibrillary pathology when compared to Stage 0 cases. Analysis of variance of data with respect to the different stages of neurofibrillary pathology revealed significant stage-related declines of [3H]ryanodine binding in the subiculum (P < 0.02) with trends towards significant decreases in CA1, CA2 and CA4. Post-hoc testing with Fisher's PLSD showed significant reductions (74-94%) of [3H]ryanodine binding in the subiculum, and CA1-CA4 regions of the late isocortical stage (V-VI) cases compared to the early entorhinal stage I-II cases. [3H]Ryanodine binding also showed significant declines with staging for beta-amyloid deposition in the entorhinal cortex (P < 0.01) and CA4 (P < 0.05) with trends towards a significant decrease in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that alterations in ryanodine receptor binding and function are very early events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and may be fundamental to the progression of both neurofibrillary and beta-amyloid pathologies.Neuroscience 01/1999; 92(2):499-513. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A central question in Alzheimer's disease concerns the mechanism by which beta-amyloid contributes to neuropathology, and in particular whether intracellular versus extracellular beta-amyloid plays a critical role. Alzheimer transgenic mouse studies demonstrate brain dysfunction, as beta-amyloid levels rise, months before the appearance of beta-amyloid plaques. We have now used immunoelectron microscopy to determine the subcellular site of neuronal beta-amyloid in normal and Alzheimer brains, and in brains from Alzheimer transgenic mice. We report that beta-amyloid 42 localized predominantly to multivesicular bodies of neurons in normal mouse, rat, and human brain. In transgenic mice and human Alzheimer brain, intraneuronal beta-amyloid 42 increased with aging and beta-amyloid 42 accumulated in multivesicular bodies within presynaptic and especially postsynaptic compartments. This accumulation was associated with abnormal synaptic morphology, before beta-amyloid plaque pathology, suggesting that intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease.American Journal Of Pathology 12/2002; 161(5):1869-79. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The AICD (amyloid precursor protein [APP] intracellular domain) and C31, the caspase-cleaved C-terminal fragment of APP, have been found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the C-terminal fragments of APP (AICD [C57, C59] and C31) exert neurotoxicity on differentiated PC 12 cells and rat primary cortical neurons by inducing the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, forming a ternary complex with Fe65 and CP2/LSF/LBP1 in the nucleus, whereas deletion mutants and a point mutant with Y682G of the YENPTY domain, a Fe65 binding domain, do not. Moreover, expression of APP770 and Swedish mutant form of APP increased the levels of C-terminal fragments of APP (APP-CTs) in neuronal cells and also induced the up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta at both the mRNA and the protein levels. In addition, we show that CP2/LSF/LBP1 binding site (nt +0 to approximately +10) in human glycogen synthase kinase 3beta promoter region is essential for the induction of the gene transcription by APP-CTs. The neurotoxicities induced by APP-CTs (AICD and C31) were accompanied by an increase in the active form of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, and by the induction of tau phosphorylation and a reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels, and led to apoptosis.The FASEB Journal 11/2003; 17(13):1951-3. · 5.70 Impact Factor