Glucose control in diabetes: the impact of racial differences on monitoring and outcomes
ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US and is projected to increase in prevalence globally. Minorities are disproportionately affected by diabetes and data suggest that clinical outcomes consistently fall below American Diabetes Association recommendations. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine ethnic differences in self-monitoring and outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. Medline was searched for articles published between January 1990 and January 2012 by means of a reproducible strategy. Inclusion criteria included (1) published in English, (2) targeted African Americans, Hispanic, or Asian adults, ages 18+ years with type 2 diabetes, (3) cross-sectional, cohort, or intervention study, and (4) measured change in glycemic control, BP, lipids, or quality of life by race. Twenty-two papers met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, significant racial differences and barriers were found in published studies in diabetes management as it pertains to self-monitoring and outcomes. African Americans tend to consistently exhibit worse outcomes and control when compared to other minority populations and non-Hispanic Whites. In conclusion, significant racial differences and barriers exist in diabetes management as it pertains to self-monitoring and outcomes when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Explanatory and intervention studies are needed to determine the mechanisms and mediators of these differences and strategies to reduce these disparities. In addition, more research is needed to investigate the impact of racial differences in self-monitoring and outcomes on quality of life.
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ABSTRACT: The use of behavioral interventions has been shown to improve glycemic control, however, the effectiveness of different behavioral interventions in one of the most high risk populations, African Americans, remains unclear. Our systematic review identified and examined findings of published behavioral interventions targeted at African Americans to improve glycemic control. The goal of our study was to distinguish which interventions were effective and identify areas for future research. Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for articles published from January 2000 through January 2012 using a reproducible strategy. Study eligibility criteria included interventions aimed at changing behavior in adult African Americans with type 2 diabetes and measured glycemic control. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, of which five showed a statistically significant change in HbA1c in the intervention group when compared to the control group. Summary information and characteristics of the reviewed studies are provided. Characteristics of successful interventions included using problem solving with the patient, culturally tailoring the intervention, and using a nurse educator. Limitations include the limited number of intervention studies available using glycemic control as the outcome measure. Clinical trials are needed to determine how best to tailor interventions to this largely underserved population and studies should describe details of cultural tailoring to provide information for future programs.Ethnicity & disease 01/2013; 23(4):401-8. · 1.00 Impact Factor
- Endocrine 03/2013; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s12020-013-9920-3 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) will need incrementally more complex therapeutic regimens to control hyperglycemia as the disease progresses. Insulin is very effective in reducing hyperglycemia and may improve β-cell function in patients with T2DM. However, insulin therapy is associated with weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Adding other antidiabetes medications to insulin can improve glycemic control and potentially lower the required insulin dose, resulting in less weight gain and lower risk for hypoglycemia. This article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of commonly used antidiabetes agents, with emphasis on newer classes, for use as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on insulin therapy. A PubMed search from July 1, 2003 to April 15, 2013 for peer-reviewed clinical and review articles relevant to insulin combination or add-on therapy in T2DM was conducted. Search terms included "insulin combination therapy," "add-on therapy diabetes," "dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors," "glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist," "sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors", "insulin metformin," "insulin sulfonylurea," and "insulin thiazolidinedione." Bibliographies from retrieved articles were also searched for relevant articles. Study design, clinical relevance, and effect on insulin combination therapy were analyzed. Therapies used as add-on to insulin include agents associated with weight gain (thiazolidinediones and sulfonylureas) and/or hypoglycemia (sulfonylureas), which, therefore, may exacerbate risks already present with insulin. GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors improve glycemic control when added to insulin and have a low propensity for hypoglycemia and cause no change (DPP-4 inhibitors) or a reduction (GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors) in body weight. GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors improve glycemic control when combined with insulin. They also have low propensity for weight gain and hypoglycemia and so may be preferred treatment options for insulin combination when compared with traditional therapies.Advances in Therapy 06/2013; 30(6). DOI:10.1007/s12325-013-0039-y · 2.27 Impact Factor