Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Infants and Toddlers: Three Multicenter Phase III Studies
ABSTRACT : Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menactra [MenACWY-D]), was licensed in the United States in 2005 to prevent meningococcal disease in adolescents and adults. The license was extended to children aged 2-10 years in 2007 and extended again in 2011 to infants aged 9 months and older based, in part, on results from 3 phase III studies presented herein.
: The safety and immunogenicity of 2 doses of MenACWY-D was assessed in study-eligible children: dose 1 was administered at 9 months of age and dose 2 was administered 3 months later with or without routine childhood vaccines.
: Thirty days after vaccination, protective serum bactericidal assay-human complement titers ≥1:8 for meningococcal serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 were achieved by 86-100% of children receiving 2 doses of MenACWY-D. When MenACWY-D was concomitantly administered with measles, mumps, rubella and varicella or heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 81-98% of participants achieved protective responses (serum bactericidal assay-human complement titers ≥1:8 for all serogroups). All seroprotection rates were >91% when the protective titer was defined as serum bactericidal assay-human complement ≥1:4. MenACWY-D did not interfere with measles, mumps, rubella or varicella vaccine responses (98-100% achieved protective titers). When heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was given concomitantly with MenACWY-D, antipneumococcal antibody levels, although decreased, were protective for all serotypes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (98-100% ≥ 0.35 μg/mL) and opsonophagocytic assay (99-100% ≥ 1:8). Adverse events were generally mild and similar across groups. Serious adverse events were uncommon.
: MenACWY-D was safe and immunogenic when given in 2 doses to infants and toddlers; this vaccine can be given with other common childhood immunizations.
SourceAvailable from: Ghassan S Dbaibo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines - MenACWY-DT (Menactra(®)) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo(®)) - using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix(®)) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks.Infection and Drug Resistance 01/2014; 7:85-99. DOI:10.2147/IDR.S36243
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ABSTRACT: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent meningococcal (groups A,C,Y,W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-DT) in India.Indian pediatrics 06/2014; 51(6):451-6. DOI:10.1007/s13312-014-0435-7 · 1.01 Impact Factor