Ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agent binding to both E- and P-selectin in different species.
ABSTRACT Ultrasound molecular imaging is increasingly used in preclinical studies to measure the expression of vascular markers during inflammation process. In this context, a new ultrasound contrast agent functionalized with a recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 analogue (rPSGL-Ig) was developed (MBrPSGL-Ig). This agent was assayed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate its binding performance and potential to image expression of inflammatory markers E- and P-selectin. Performance of this newly developed agent was compared with that of antibody (MBAb) or sialyl Lewis X (MBsLe) containing microbubbles and with control microbubbles (MBC).
The targeted ultrasound contrast agents were prepared by coupling biotin-conjugated ligands onto streptavidin-functionalized microbubbles. First, in vitro experiments were performed to measure the adhesion efficiency of these microbubble constructs under static or flow conditions (114 sec), on cell monolayer (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bEnd.5), or coatings of E- or P-selectin of various animal species, respectively. Second, molecular imaging studies were performed in a rat inflammatory model 24 hours after intramuscular injection of lipopolysaccharide in the hind limb. Finally, immunohistochemistry staining of rat inflamed muscle tissue was performed to assess expression of E- and P-selectin.
Microbubbles functionalized with rPSGL-Ig (MBrPSGL-Ig) displayed firm in vitro binding on the coating of both recombinant E- or P-selectin, with an efficiency similar to microbubbles comprising antibody specific for E-selectin (MBE) or P-selectin (MBP). In contrast, lower binding capacity was measured with MBsLe. At the surface of inflamed endothelial cells, MBrPSGL-Ig were able to interact specifically with E- and P-selectin. Binding specificity was demonstrated by performing blocking experiments with target-specific antibodies, resulting in an 80% to 95% decrease in binding. Ten minutes after microbubble injection, echo signal measured with MBrPSGL-Ig in the inflamed muscles was 20-fold higher compared with MBC. Moreover, the in vivo adhesion of MBrPSGL-Ig was 2- and 7-fold higher compared with P-selectin or E-selectin-specific microbubbles, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed a temporal coexpression of E- and P-selectin in the vascular bed of inflamed rat muscle 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection.
The molecular imaging study demonstrates that MBrPSGL-Ig provide imaging signal higher than those measured with antibody or sialyl Lewis X containing microbubbles. These results suggest that MBrPSGL-Ig is a powerful agent to image the expression of both E- and P-selectin in the context of an inflammatory process.
SourceAvailable from: Giuseppe Giugliano[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder that can evolve into an acute clinical event by plaque development, rupture, and thrombosis. Plaque vulnerability represents the susceptibility of a plaque to rupture and to result in an acute cardiovascular event. Nevertheless, plaque vulnerability is not an established medical diagnosis, but rather an evolving concept that has gained attention to improve risk prediction. The availability of high-resolution imaging modalities has significantly facilitated the possibility of performing in vivo regression studies and documenting serial changes in plaque stability. This review summarizes the currently available non-invasive methods to identify vulnerable plaques and to evaluate the effects of the current cardiovascular treatments on plaque evolution.European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 05/2014; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jeu097 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome remains challenging especially in patients without clear symptoms or electrocardiographic and/or biomarker features. A hallmark of ischemia/reperfusion is activation of endothelial cells leading to altered expression of molecular markers, including selectins. In this context, we aimed to validate the value of ultrasound molecular imaging for detecting transient myocardial ischemia by using a clinically translatable dual P- and E-selectin-targeted ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) and microbubble (MBselectin). Transient (20 minutes) myocardial ischemia of rat heart was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by 2-, 5-, or 24-hour reperfusion. Imaging of the transient ischemic event was achieved by the use of MBselectin. Performance of this clinically translatable targeted UCA was compared with that of antibody-targeted streptavidin MBs. Finally, immunohistochemistry staining of rat myocardial ischemic tissue was performed to assess expression of selectins accessible to targeted UCA. In rats subjected to myocardial ischemia (20 minutes) followed by reperfusion (2 hours), injection of MBselectin produced high late phase (ie, 10-minute postinjection) ultrasound molecular imaging enhancement in the myocardium, which colocalized with the ischemic area. Late phase enhancement persisted 5 and 24 hours after reperfusion. Similarly, the use of MBP and MBE, comprising antibodies specific for P- and E-selectin, respectively, showed high late-phase enhancement within the ischemic area compared with remote myocardial tissue. Two and 5 hours after ischemia has resolved, a persistent expression of these 2 selectins was detected. After 24 hours of reperfusion, only MBE produced late phase enhancement within the ischemic myocardium. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that both P- and E-selectin were expressed and accessible on the surface of the activated endothelium 2 and 5 hours after the acute ischemic event, whereas only E-selectin remained accessible after 24 hours. Ultrasound molecular imaging of transient myocardial ischemia using dual selectin-targeted UCA is able to monitor the time course of expression of selectins after resolution of the ischemic event, paving the way for a large clinical diagnostic window.Investigative radiology 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000018 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Expression levels of endoglin, αv integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were investigated using targeted, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in murine melanoma tumor models. Microvasculature and expression levels of biomarkers were investigated using specific contrast agents conjugated with biotinylated monoclonal antibodies. Ultrasound signal intensity from bound contrast agents was evaluated in two groups of mice: control mice and mice treated with sorafenib. Expression levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Endoglin biomarkers were more highly expressed than αv integrin and VEGFR2. Endoglin decreased in the sorafenib group, whereas it tended to increase with time in the control group. Targeted ultrasound contrast agents may be used for non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of tumor angiogenesis during tumor growth or therapeutic treatment in preclinical studies. Endoglin protein, which plays an important role in angiogenesis, seems to be a target of interest for detection of cancer and for prediction of therapeutic efficacy.Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 10/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.06.014 · 2.10 Impact Factor