Oxygenated Drinking Water Enhances Immune Activity in Pigs and Increases Immune Responses of Pigs during Salmonella Typhimurium Infection
ABSTRACT It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jina Lee, Mar 10, 2015
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ABSTRACT: It has been validated that UVB irradiation induced both squamous and basal cell carcinomas, as a tumor initiator and promoter. Opuntia humifusa is a member of the Cactaceae family which has been demonstrated in our previous study to have a chemopreventive effect in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced skin carcinogenesis models. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the protective effects of O.humifusa against photocarcinogenesis. O. humifusa was administrated to mice as a dietary feeding, following exposure to UVB radiation (180 mJ/ cm(2) ) twice a week of 30 weeks for skin tumor development in hairless mice. Dietary O.humifusa inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, level of myeloperoxidase and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in UVB exposed skin. Also, O.humifusa significantly inhibited both protein and mRNA expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 compared to the non-O.humifusa treated group. Collectively, these results suggest that O.humifusa could inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin and that protective effect is associated with the inhibition of not only UVB-induced inflammatory responses involving COX-2, iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the down-regulation of UVB-induced cellular proliferation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Photochemistry and Photobiology 06/2013; DOI:10.1111/php.12113 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the leading cause of death in the world that represents an important public health problem. Oxygenated water is water added with high concentration of oxygen such that the oxygen concentration is higher than normal water. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of oxygenated water consumption on the alteration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL6) and antioxidant capacity of COPD patients. Sixteen COPD patients were allowed to drink 385 mL oxygenated water two times a day for 21 days. The alteration of proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant capacity are measured by comparing plasma concentration before and after intervention. The results suggest that oxygenated water consumption significantly reduce proinflammatory cytokines plasma (TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL6) at 5% significance level with 81.25% of respondents having lower TNF-α, 75% of respondents with lower IL-1β, and 62.25% of respondents having lower the IL-6 in plasma concentration after 21 days intervention. There were 43.75% of respondents with decreased antioxidant capacity concentration. However, it was not significant at the 5% level significance. Decrease in antioxidant capacity was probably a resulted from poordiet and drugs consumption during the intervention period.
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ABSTRACT: Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV), which includes melittin and lipid-soluble ingredients (chrysin and pinocembrin), elicited increases in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of the T helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokines (interferon-γ and IL-12) and reinforced viral clearance of an experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in our previous study. On the basis of that previous study, we have now developed poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-encapsulated HBV nanoparticles (P-HBV) for longer sustained release of HBV. We administered P-HBV to pigs via the rectal route, and then evaluated the potential immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of P-HBV against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocyte ratio, proliferative capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 (produced mainly by Th1 lymphocytes) were significantly increased in the P-HBV group up to 2 weeks post-administration of P-HBV. After S. Typhimurium infection, the P-HBV group showed a marked reduction in microbial burden in feces and all tissue samples (including the ileum, cecum, colon, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN)), a significant increase in Th 1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12) and a marked decrease in a Th 2 cytokine (IL-4) in all tissue samples and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thus, P-HBV may be a promising strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of S. Typhimurium or other bacterial infections.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 08/2014; 161(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.08.010 · 1.75 Impact Factor