Chemical macrocyclization of peptides fused to antibody fc fragments.
ABSTRACT To extend the plasma half-life of a bicyclic peptide antagonist, we chose to link it to the Fc fragment of the long-lived serum protein IgG1. Instead of chemically conjugating the entire bicyclic peptide, we recombinantly expressed its peptide moiety as a fusion protein to an Fc fragment and subsequently cyclized the peptide by chemically reacting its three cysteine residues with tris-(bromomethyl)benzene. This reaction was efficient and selective, yielding completely modified peptide fusion protein and no side products. After optimization of the linker and the Fc fragment format, the bicyclic peptide was fully functional as an inhibitor (K(i) = 76 nM) and showed an extended terminal half-life of 1.5 days in mice. The unexpectedly clean reaction makes chemical macrocyclization of peptide-Fc fusion proteins an attractive synthetic approach. Its good compatibility with the Fc fragment may lend the bromomethylbenzene-based chemistry also for the generation of antibody-drug conjugates.
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ABSTRACT: The notable expansion of peptide therapeutics development in the late 1990s and the 2000s led to an unprecedented number of marketing approvals in 2012 and has provided a robust pipeline that should deliver numerous approvals during the remainder of the 2010s. To document the current status of the pipeline, we collected data for peptide therapeutics in clinical studies and regulatory review, as well as those recently approved. In this Foundation review, we provide an overview of the pipeline, including therapeutic area and molecular targets, with a focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. Areas for potential expansion, for example constrained peptides and peptide-drug conjugates, are profiled.Drug discovery today 05/2013; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transient gene expression (TGE) from mammalian cells is an increasingly important tool for the rapid production of recombinant proteins for research applications in biochemistry, structural biology, and biomedicine. Here we review methods for the transfection of human embryo kidney (HEK-293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in suspension culture using the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) for gene delivery.Protein Expression and Purification 09/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Improving the binding affinity and/or stability of peptide ligands often requires testing of large numbers of variants to identify beneficial mutations. Herein we propose a type of mutation that promises a high success rate. In a bicyclic peptide inhibitor of the cancer-related protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), we observed a glycine residue that has a positive ϕ dihedral angle when bound to the target. We hypothesized that replacing it with a D-amino acid, which favors positive ϕ angles, could enhance the binding affinity and/or proteolytic resistance. Mutation of this specific glycine to D-serine in the bicyclic peptide indeed improved inhibitory activity (1.75-fold) and stability (fourfold). X-ray-structure analysis of the inhibitors in complex with uPA showed that the peptide backbone conformation was conserved. Analysis of known cyclic peptide ligands showed that glycine is one of the most frequent amino acids, and that glycines with positive ϕ angles are found in many protein-bound peptides. These results suggest that the glycine-to-D-amino acid mutagenesis strategy could be broadly applied.ChemBioChem 07/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor