Effects of floral resources on fitness of the parasitoids Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Biological Control (Impact Factor: 1.87). 11/2008; 47(2):180-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.07.013

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine if floral resources enhanced longevity and fecundity of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner and longevity of the larval parasitoid Cotesia congregata (Say). Newly eclosed (⩽12 h) female wasps were provisioned with fennel (Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flowers or one of two controls: honey or water. Wasps were monitored daily until all had died. Daily egg production by T. exiguum was monitored using Ephestia kuehniella Keller egg cards. Longevity of both T. exiguum (6.7 d) and C. congregata (5.1 d) provided buckwheat flowers was increased approximately 8.5-fold compared with wasps provided only water. Buckwheat-provisioned T. exiguum exhibited 2-fold greater longevity than those provided fennel. Longevity of C. congregata provisioned with fennel and honey was not statistically different. Water-provisioned T. exiguum and C. congregata exhibited the shortest longevity (0.8 and 0.6 d, respectively). Total fecundity was 6.3-fold greater in T. exiguum provisioned with buckwheat and 2.3-fold greater in T. exiguum provisioned with fennel than in water controls. Average female to male ratio of progeny over the lifetime of each female was significantly greatest in T. exiguum provisioned with water alone, likely because of sperm depletion in wasps exhibiting greater longevity. Total mean number of female offspring produced was significantly greatest in T. exiguum provided honey or buckwheat flowers although no difference in total female offspring were observed between adults provisioned with buckwheat or fennel flowers. Our results show that provisioning T. exiguum with honey and buckwheat flowers resulted in greater longevity, total fecundity, and lifetime production of female offspring than water alone. Buckwheat flowers also lead to greater longevity in C. congregata.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The limited availability of sugar sources (e.g., flowers) in greenhouses may affect biological pest control by parasitoid wasps. However, few studies have focused on feeding devices to provide parasitoids with sugar foods. We investigated the accessibility of a yellow-colored bottle-type feeding device to adult Cotesia vestalis (Halliday), a larval endoparasitoid of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.). All parasitoids died within four days in a room with no sugar source, whereas 66.7 % of individuals survived if a bottle-type feeding device providing honey solution was installed. We also investigated female longevity in response to different sugar solutions presented in a bottle-type feeding device. Honey and sugar mixtures (glucose and fructose) improved female longevity (38.4 and 39.2 days, respectively) much more than water (3.1 days), indicating these feeding devices containing sugar foods to be potentially useful for maintaining C. vestalis in greenhouses where natural food sources are limited.
    BioControl 12/2014; 59(6):681-688. DOI:10.1007/s10526-014-9611-x · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1 The rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a serious rice pest in Asia. The conspicuous foliar damage caused by C. medinalis larvae leads to early‐season insecticide applications that disrupt the biological control of this and other pest species. 2 Despite the often dramatic impact of C. medinalis, rice plants can tolerate severe defoliation with no impact on grain yield, although persuading farmers to withhold insecticide application has proven very difficult. 3 The present review assesses the prevention of damage caused by C. medinalis via biological control using parasitoids. Information on the indigenous parasitoids of C. medinalis is drawn together for the first time from the non‐English literature published in Asia. This is integrated with the wider English language literature to provide a comprehensive analysis of the parasitoid fauna. 4 Survey studies have been conducted in many Asian countries in recent decades, showing that parasitoids of rice pests can achieve high rates of parasitism but are far from consistent as a mortality factor. There is much less work available on the biology of leaffolder parasitoids in rice and there is an unexpected dearth of studies regarding increasing their performance by providing nectar sources, which is a widely explored approach for other crop systems. 5 It is concluded that the recently reported work in which nectar plants are established on rice bunds to support planthopper parasitoids may have significant benefit for leaffolder parasitoids. The use of plant species, however, that are selective in not allowing adult moths to feed will be essential.
    Agricultural and Forest Entomology 02/2012; 14(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2011.00550.x · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Augmentative biological control of insects is a tool of Integrated Pest Management programs. In many agroecosystems, biological control is exercised largely by parasitoids, and it is found that the presence of food resources, as provided by flowering plants, can have a positive effect on survival, search ability and parasitism rate of parasitoid species. In Colombia, a recently established export crop, the cape gooseberry, is under continuous attack by a Lepidopteran species complex in the family Noctuidae. Our first objective was to test the longevity and parasitism rates of three species of egg parasitoids in the genus Trichogramma (Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley) for Spodoptera frugiperda Smith and Copitarsia decolora Gueene. Our results suggest that T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum could be promising parasitoids for the control of S. frugiperda and C. decolora, with a percentage parasitism of between 30% and 60%, respectively. For our second objective, we selected T. atopovirilia as a model species to evaluate the effect of the presence of flowering plants on the longevity and parasitism rate in both, no choice and multiple choice experiments, under laboratory and field conditions. Our results consistently showed that the presence of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) can increase the longevity and parasitism rate of T. atopovirilia, suggesting that providing food resources to parasitoids in cape gooseberry fields should be part of a habitat diversification strategy to control noctuid pests.
    Biological Control 02/2012; 60:182-191. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.11.001 · 1.87 Impact Factor