Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films
ABSTRACT Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with l-arginine (l-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for l-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.
SourceAvailable from: Atefeh Solouk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To date, there are no small internal diameter (<5mm) vascular grafts that are FDA approved for clinical use due to high failure rates from thrombosis and unwanted cell proliferation. The ideal conditions to enhance bioengineered grafts would be the blood contacting lumen of the bypass graft fully covered by endothelial cells (ECs). As a strategy towards this aim, we hypothesized that by immobilising biomolecules on the surface of the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymers, which contain binding sites and ligands for cell surface receptors similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) will positively influence the attachment and proliferation of ECs. Since, the surface of POSS-PCU is inert and not directly suitable for immobilisation of biomolecules, plasma graft polymerisation is a suitable method to modify the surface properties ready for immobilisation and biofunctionalisation. POSS-PCU was activated by plasma treatment in air/O2 to from hydroperoxides (-OH, -OOH), and then carboxylated via plasma polymerisation of a 30% acrylic acid solution (Poly-AA) using a two-step plasma treatment (TSPT) process. Collagen type I, a major component of ECM, was covalently immobilised to mimic the ECM structures to ECs (5mg/ml) using a two-step chemical reaction using EDC chemistry. Successful immobilisation of poly-AA and collagen on to the nanocomposites was confirmed using Toluidine Blue staining and the Bradford assay. Un-treated POSS-PCU served as a simple control. The impact of collagen grafting on the physical, mechanical and biological properties of POSS-PCU was evaluated via contact angle (θ) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), ECs adhesion and proliferation followed by platelet adhesion and haemolysis ratio (HR) tests. Poly-AA content on each of the plasma treated nanocomposite films increased on Low, Med and High samples due to more carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups at the surface forming amide (-NH2) bonds. The amount of -COOH groups on each of the Low, Med and High nanocomposites correlated with Poly-AA grafting density at 14.7±0.9, 18.9±0.9, and 34.2±2.4μg/cm(2). Immobilisation of collagen type I on to nanocomposite surface was also found to increase significantly on the Low, Med and High samples from 22±4, 150±15, and 219±17μg/cm(2), respectively. The level of ECs and their adhesion efficiency were improved with increasing amounts of grafted collagen I. The maximum adhesion of ECs was found on the highest collagen type I coated nanocomposites. Platelet adhesion and activation also increased with increasing collagen density. The obtained HR values for all of the treated samples were well within the acceptable standards for biomaterials (<5% HR). Poly-AA-g-POSS-PCU surfaces offer binding sites for the covalent bonding of collagen type I and other biomolecules such as fibronectin by exposure of RGD cell binding domains and growth factors using EDC cross-linking chemistry. Collagen type I modification can yield accelerated EC growth and enhance the endothelialisation of POSS-PCU nanocomposites, and the amount of immobilised collagen can control the level of platelet adhesion on functionalized POSS-PCU via TSPT and poly acrylic acid (poly-AA) treatment. Such surface modification procedures of polymeric surfaces can improve the patency rate of POSS-PCU nanocomposites as vascular bypass grafts in the preparation of a range of medical devices ready for pre-clinical and in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Materials Science and Engineering C 01/2015; 46:400-8. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.10.065 · 2.74 Impact Factor
Chemical Reviews 06/2011; 111(9):5742-67. DOI:10.1021/cr200008n · 45.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The surface of NiTi alloy was roughened by NaOH–HCl treatment, and the Ta-containing TiO2 films were coated on the pretreated NiTi alloy by the sol–gel method. Thermal analyses indicate that the evaporation temperature of the organics decreases with the addition of tantalum ethoxide in the TiO2 sol, but the crystallization temperature of anatase increases. The NaOH–HCl pretreatment improves the film integrity, but cracks still form in the films at high Ta contents (≥20 %, molar ratio) owing to the increasing film thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the addition of Ta suppresses the crystallization of anatase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that Ta exists as Ta2O5 in the film. With the increase of Ta content, the hydrophilic conversion of the films under UV illumination is impeded, but their corrosion resistance in 0.9 % NaCl solution increases, tested by the potentiodynamic polarization. The coating samples have acceptable hemolysis ratios for biomaterials (Rare Metals 02/2014; 33(1):21-27. DOI:10.1007/s12598-013-0208-9 · 0.81 Impact Factor