Determination of cocaine contamination on banknotes using tandem mass spectrometry and pattern recognition
ABSTRACT Tandem mass spectrometry is used to monitor the contamination of banknotes by cocaine. By introducing a series of banknotes into an instrument a distribution of contamination can be obtained. The distribution of samples arising from defendants where the banknotes have been in close proximity to cocaine should differ from the distribution from the general background population. Peak picking and integration is used to produce a series of intensity readings for a batch of banknotes. By visually inspecting these distribution, and applying a variety of chemometric methods (principal components analysis, cluster analysis and class modelling via Mahalanobis distance) it is possible to discriminate effectively between the two classes of distribution (7157 background notes and 4826 case notes alleged to be from drug dealers). By calculating the Mahalonobis distance over 100 bootstrap iterations, background samples were correctly classified 96.48% of the time, while case samples were correctly classified 89.37% of the time.
- SourceAvailable from: Sergio Armenta[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The presence of cocaine in a significant number of UK pounds (Xxxx), Euros (€) and North American banknotes ($) in general circulation requires appropriate tools to do determinations. This article discusses the-state-of-the-art in the analysis of cocaine on banknotes. We summarize the usual extraction methods of currency samples and compare them, especially with respect to avoiding sample damage. We critically discuss analytical methods, namely gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), immunoassay, thermal desorption tandem mass spectrometry (TD-MS2) and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS). We also review cocaine levels on banknotes around the world and their possible relationship with drug consumption.TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 04/2008; · 6.61 Impact Factor
Article: NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.Journal of Forensic Sciences 03/2013; · 1.31 Impact Factor