Improving the cooling performance of automobile radiator with Al2O3/water nanofluid
ABSTRACT In this paper, forced convective heat transfer in a water based nanofluid has experimentally been compared to that of pure water in an automobile radiator. Five different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0.1–1 vol.% have been prepared by the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles into the water. The test liquid flows through the radiator consisted of 34 vertical tubes with elliptical cross section and air makes a cross flow inside the tube bank with constant speed. Liquid flow rate has been changed in the range of 2–5 l/min to have the fully turbulent regime (9 × 103 < Re < 2.3 × 104). Additionally, the effect of fluid inlet temperature to the radiator on heat transfer coefficient has also been analyzed by varying the temperature in the range of 37–49 °C. Results demonstrate that increasing the fluid circulating rate can improve the heat transfer performance while the fluid inlet temperature to the radiator has trivial effects. Meanwhile, application of nanofluid with low concentrations can enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 45% in comparison with pure water.Highlights► Application of nanofluid in the car radiator has been studied experimentally. ► Heat transfer enhancement of about 45% compared to water has been recorded. ► Increasing particle concentration and velocity improves heat transfer performance.
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ABSTRACT: The physical behavior of a fluid in contact with solid layers is still not fully understood. The present work focuses on the study and understanding of thermodynamic and structural properties of gold–water nanolayer mixtures using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different systems are considered, where approximately 1,700 water molecules are confined between gold nanolayers with separations of 7.4 and 6.2nm, respectively. Novelties of the present work are in the use of accurate force fields for modeling the inter- and intra-molecular interactions of the components, and providing comprehensive thermodynamic properties of the mixtures. The results are validated by examination of the pure fluid and pure solid properties. Results indicate that the thermodynamics of the system does not behave as an ideal mixture. The structure of the pure fluid is also analyzed and compared against the structure of the confined fluid in the mixture. Anisotropicity is observed in the fluid structure close to the surface of the nanolayer. Higher ordering and higher flux are detected in the fluid molecules close to the fluid–solid interface. Unusual thermodynamic behavior, anisotropicity, liquid layering, and higher interfacial fluid flux could be just some of the factors leading to the enhanced energy transport observed in mixtures involving at least one nanoscale component, such as nanofluids. KeywordsNanofluid–Confinement–Mixture–Molecular dynamics–Gold/water–Thermodynamics–Colloids–Modeling and simulationJournal of Nanoparticle Research 01/2011; 13(9):4277-4293. · 2.18 Impact Factor
- National Conference on Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering; 06/2012
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ABSTRACT: Nanofluids are nanosize-powder suspensions that are of interest for their enhanced thermal transport properties. They are studied as promising alternatives to ordinary cooling fluids, but the tribiological effects of nanofluids on cooling-system materials are largely unknown. The authors have developed methodology that uses jet impingement on typical cooling-system materials to test such effects. The work is presented of the authors' research on the interactions of a typical nanofluid (2% volume of alumina nanopowders in a solution of ethylene glycol in water) which is impinged on aluminum and copper specimens for tests as long as 112 hours. The surface changes were assessed by roughness measurements and optical-microscope studies. Comparative roughness indicate that both the reference cooling fluid of ethylene glycol and water and its nanofluid with 2% alumina produce roughness changes in aluminum (even for the shortest 3-hour test), but no significant roughness differences were observed between them. No significant roughness changes were observed for copper. Microscopy observations, however, show different surface modifications in both aluminum and copper by both the nanofluid and its base fluid. The possible mechanisms of early erosion are discussed. These investigations demonstrate suitable methods for the testing of nanofluid effects on cooling system-materials.Advances in Tribology 01/2014; 2014.