Preliminary study of ballistic impact on an industrial tank: Projectile velocity decay
ABSTRACT Since the events of September 11, 2001, the possibility of an intentional act targeting the chemical process industry has become realistic. It is, therefore, a great concern to be able to predict the immediate consequences of such an act. This study is intended to improve our knowledge about the sequence of events that occurs when a high-speed bullet (>1000 m s−1) penetrates a vessel filled with toxic liquid. We find that, prior to liquid ejection, several well-defined phases occur, including the phenomenon known as the “hydraulic ram.” This paper focuses on projectile–target interactions and explains how the decay of projectile velocity is related to the initial conditions of the target.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The main function of a multi-layer protective structure of a combatant ship is to prevent the inner cabins from being destroyed by anti-ship weapons. The damage effect of these weapons on ship structures mainly comes from the blast wave and fragments. The motivation of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of blast wave and fragment impact loadings on the multi-layer protective structure. A protective structure model with four layers and a metal casing filled with TNT charge (MCTC) which was used to simulate the warhead of an anti-ship weapon were designed and manufactured. An experiment was conducted in which the MCTC exploded inside an empty cabin of the first layer of the multi-layer protective structure. The distribution of fragments and the equivalent bare charge of the MCTC were determined by a numerical method. From experimental results, the failure pattern of the multi-layer protective structure under the synergistic effect of blast wave and fragment impact loadings was presented. The synergistic effect for the stiffened plates was also presented in the experiment by comparing the deformation and the rupture of the air-backed and water-backed stiffened plates. On the other hand, the agreement between numerical results and experimental results validated the numerical method, which enabled the numerical model to be used to predict the response of a full scale structure under loadings of anti-ship weapons. Finally, a discussion of synergistic effects of blast and fragment loadings on a multi-layer structure was presented and suggestions for the design of a protective structure are put forward.International Journal of Impact Engineering 01/2013; · 2.01 Impact Factor
- AIAA Journal 07/2012; 50(7):1621-1630. · 1.17 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Experiments were performed in order to measure evaporation rates of four different volatile organic compounds (VOC; 2-propanol, 1-hexene, acetone, propanal) and water. Evaporation mass flow rates and liquid temperatures where recorded. Different correlations were tested versus the experimental. Exponents and constant were recalculated to fit the experimental data. This new correlation was tested on an additional VOC experimentation (ethanol) and the accuracy of the correlation was satisfying. The correlation robustness was investigated versus temperature and wind velocity. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2013Process Safety Progress 05/2013; 32(2):193-198. · 0.59 Impact Factor