Preliminary study of ballistic impact on an industrial tank: Projectile velocity decay
ABSTRACT Since the events of September 11, 2001, the possibility of an intentional act targeting the chemical process industry has become realistic. It is, therefore, a great concern to be able to predict the immediate consequences of such an act. This study is intended to improve our knowledge about the sequence of events that occurs when a high-speed bullet (>1000 m s−1) penetrates a vessel filled with toxic liquid. We find that, prior to liquid ejection, several well-defined phases occur, including the phenomenon known as the “hydraulic ram.” This paper focuses on projectile–target interactions and explains how the decay of projectile velocity is related to the initial conditions of the target.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The viscosities of aqueous solutions of some poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG) with nominal molecular weights ranging from 300 to 35 000 g mol−1 were determined up to a concentration of 0.3 g cm−3 at 298.15 K. From these data the intrinsic viscosity and the viscosity average molecular weight of the solute were calculated. The viscosity coefficients B were evaluated and hence the partial molar Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow of solute at infinite dilution was calculated and interpreted in terms of the relative effects of solute on the ground and transition state solvent. The hydration numbers were determined and compared with available values in the literature.Fluid Phase Equilibria 01/1999; 155(2):311-325. · 2.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For the pharmaceutical sciences, it is of great interest to evaluate a set of physicochemical properties of an active principle in an appropriate vehicle. In this work, solubility of acetaminophen (AC) in binary mixtures of water (W) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), polyol acting as a cosolvent, has been determined at 25.0 ± 0.1 °C. Permittivities of W-PEG 400 and of saturated solutions (SS) systems were experimentally determined in order to correlate acetaminophen solubility with the dielectric properties and polarity of the solvent medium according to the model proposed by Lordi et al.The W-PEG 400 compositions in the range of permittivities from 14.16 to 78.54 and the solubility parameters between 10.6 and 23.4, determine changes in the polarity of the medium. These factors modify the solubility of AC, a phenomenon that arises from the interactions between hydrophilic and lipophilic groups of the molecules. The effect of the polyol concentration increment gives rise to an important dissolved quantity of acetaminophen showing a maximum of 1.9608 M for fPEG = 0.80. The permittivity values for W-PEG 400 systems, at the same composition, were 29.71 and 32.88 at 1 and 2 MHz respectively. Such values represent the dielectric requirement of acetaminophen in W-PEG 400 system at those frequencies.Theoretical calculation of the acetaminophen solubility parameter, δAC = 13.13 H, allows us to obtain the optimal composition of the medium, resulting in fPEG = 0.81, in good agreement with the experimental one. The cosolvent force of PEG 400, σ, was quantified according to the linear logarithmic model proposed by Yalkowsky applied in the range 0 ≤ fPEG ≤ 0.40. The obtained value, σ = 2.1825, confirms its effectiveness.The characteristics of polarity, permittivity and fluidity of the medium, due to the presence of the polyol, enhance the acetaminophen–PEG 400 associations. These can be established through hydrogen bond and dipole–dipole interactions among the species present in the solution, and are originated by preferential orientations in the directions of the applied electrical field.Journal of Molecular Liquids 01/2007; 133:47-53. · 1.68 Impact Factor
- Journal of Fluids Engineering-transactions of The Asme - J FLUID ENG. 01/2000; 122(4).