Emerging therapies in pancreas cancer.

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY.
Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 06/2011; 2(2):93-103. DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2011.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pancreas cancer has a grave prognosis and treatment options remain limited despite advancement in anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. This review provides an overview of the emerging therapies for pancreas cancer, focusing on novel signal transduction inhibitors (insulin-like growth factor receptor, hedgehog/Smo, PI3k/Akt/mTOR) and cytotoxics (nab-paclitaxel) that are currently in clinical development. Despite the impact molecularly targeted agents have on other tumor types, their application without cytotoxics in pancreas cancer remains limited. In addition, recent report of the superiority of an intensive cytotoxic regimen using fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) over gemcitabine reminded us of the importance of cytotoxics in this disease. As such, the future of pancreas cancer therapy may be combination regimens consisting of cytotoxics and molecularly targeted agents.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, can regulate post-transcriptional gene expressions and silence a broad set of target genes. miRNAs, aberrantly expressed in cancer cells, play an important role in modulating gene expressions, thereby regulating downstream signaling pathways and affecting cancer formation and progression. Oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes regulated by miRNAs mediate cell cycle progression, metabolism, cell death, angiogenesis, metastasis and immunosuppression in cancer. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as therapeutic targets or tools and biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring in cancer. Since miRNAs can regulate multiple cancer-related genes simultaneously, using miRNAs as a therapeutic approach plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, one of the major challenges of miRNA-based cancer therapy is to achieve specific, efficient and safe systemic delivery of therapeutic miRNAs in vivo. This review discusses the key challenges to the development of the carriers for miRNA-based therapy and explores current strategies to systemically deliver miRNAs to cancer without induction of toxicity.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2014.05.009 · 12.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the Western world. Owing to a lack of specific symptoms and no accessible precursor lesions, primary diagnosis is commonly delayed, resulting in only 15%-20% of patients with potentially curable disease. The standard of care in advanced pancreatic cancer has improved. Apart from gemcitabine (plus erlotinib), FOLFIRINOX and the combination of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel are novel and promising therapeutic options for patients with metastatic PDAC. A better molecular understanding of pancreatic cancer has led to the identification of a variety of potential molecular therapeutic targets. Many targeted therapies are currently under clinical evaluation in combination with standard therapies for PDAC. This review highlights the current status of targeted therapies and their potential benefit for the treatment of advanced PDAC.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu013 · 6.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at the advanced stages, responds poorly to the available chemotherapeutics and constitutes the major factor for high mortality rate. Selective delivery of therapeutics to their cellular targets, without side effects is the foremost objective of the current investigations for effective treatment of pancreatic cancer. The development of the drugs which can selectively target pancreatic cancer along with carriers that can deliver drugs specifically to the rapidly dividing cells is considered as magic bullet for the efficient treatment of this fatal disease. This review describes various factors hampering the efficacy of drug targeting to pancreatic cancer including stromal fortress, hypocascularity, hyaluronan and interstitial fluid pressure, and exploration of various cellular targets for the site specific drug delivery. An account of burgeoning applications of novel drug delivery systems including nanoparticles, liposomes, quantum dots, micelles and drug conjugates in the management of pancreatic cancer is also provided. Additionally, potential of target based therapeutic agents and nanomedicines in clinical trials for the pancreatic cancer therapy are highlighted.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 12/2014; 10(12). DOI:10.1166/jbn.2014.2036 · 7.58 Impact Factor