Retinal artery occlusion and the 3-year risk of stroke in taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.
ABSTRACT To verify the association between retinal artery occlusion (RAO) and stroke with a large-scale nationwide study.
Retrospective nationwide population-based administrative database study.
Data were collected from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000), which contains claim data from 1 million randomly selected beneficiaries among Taiwan's 23 million residents. The study cohort consisted of all patients with a diagnosis of RAO from January 1999 through December 2006 (n = 464). The control group consisted of randomly selected patients (n = 2748) matched with the study group by age, sex, date of index medical care, and comorbid hypertension. Patients were tracked from their index date for 3 years. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute the stroke-free survival rate. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to compute the adjusted stroke-free survival rate after adjusting for possible confounding factors.
Ninety-one RAO patients (19.61%) and 280 controls (10.05%) had a stroke (P < .0001) during the 3-year follow-up period. Compared with the controls, the incidence rate ratios of stroke in RAO patients were 9.46 at 0-1 month, 5.57 at 1-6 months, and 2.16 at 0-3 years after RAO (P < .0001). After adjusting for age, sex, and selected comorbid disorders, the hazard ratio of having a stroke for RAO patients was still 2.07 times higher than that of controls and 3.34 times higher in the ≤60-year-old subgroup.
RAO increases the risk for subsequent stroke. Early neurologic evaluation and secondary prevention for stroke are recommended for RAO patients.
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ABSTRACT: Retinal vascular diseases are mostly caused by systemic vascular diseases. In some cases the systemic disease is already known but in other patients ocular anomalies often provide the first indications of a systemic disease. Treating patients with vascular fundus diseases requires close cooperation between ophthalmologists and specialists in other fields and deciding which routine and specialized diagnostic examinations are necessary in light of the potential risk factors involved requires interdisciplinary communication. This article aims to provide an overview of the most important vascular retinal diseases and which examinations are required to ensure an accurate diagnosis. The retinal vascular diseases with the highest frequency or clinical relevance are hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinal artery occlusion.Der Ophthalmologe 01/2014; 111(1):10-4. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSECentral retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is most often indirectly diagnosed by lack of retinal perfusion. Direct embolus characterization may help to understand the natural course and low response to treatment. In a previous study we identified a hyperechoic signal within the optic nerve and in the central retinal artery (“spot sign”).METHODS In this study we performed a follow-up investigation in 7 patients with CRAO and positive spot sign indicating the embolic cause of the occlusion after a median interval of 17 months (range 11-38 months) using a battery of tests (ocular color-coded sonography, optic coherence tomography [OCT], fundoscopy, amongst others).RESULTSThe spot sign persisted in all patients, none had high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis, stroke or transient ischemic attacks. Four patients were completely blind, 3 patients were able to recognize hand movements. OCT demonstrated retinal atrophy, and fundoscopy revealed only minimal arterial perfusion.CONCLUSIONS The hyperechoic spot sign may be an important predictive prognostic marker for persistent loss of vision. Its persistence may indicate calcified or cholesterol emboli and may explain the low therapeutic success rate to thrombolysis. Further studies on their origin and significance in atherosclerotic disease are warranted.Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 03/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor