Extended longitudinal analysis of arterial pressure and heart rate control in unanesthetized rats with type 1 diabetes
ABSTRACT We recorded arterial pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in type-1 diabetic rats vs. controls for >6 months. Diabetic rats (DIAB) were maintained on insulin from the day glucose >250 mg/dl ("Day 0"). Weight was similar between groups until ~3 weeks before Day 0 when the weight in DIAB transiently lagged the controls (CONT); this difference was maintained throughout the study, but both groups otherwise gained weight in parallel. Plasma glucose attained 371 ± 109 (SD) mg/dl by day 1 in DIAB. Mean BP was similar across groups, and declined through the initial 4-6 months in both the CONT (at -0.06 ± 0.04 mmHg/day) and in the DIAB (at -0.14 ± 0.21 mmHg/day; NS vs. CONT). HR in the CONT (Month 1: 341 ± 13 bpm) exceeded DIAB (325 ± 25 bpm) through ~6 months after Day 0, and also decreased progressively over this period in CONT (-0.19 ± 0.14 bpm/day) and DIAB (-0.29 ± 0.23 bpm/day; NS vs. CONT) before leveling. The BP power within 0.35-0.45 Hz changed during the 90 min before vs. after the transition from dark to light, and light to dark; there were no between group differences. The slope of the log-log linear portion of the BP power spectrum between 1.0/h and 1/min was similar across groups, and increased in both from month 1 to month 6. Regulatory mechanisms maintain similar profiles in BP and HR in diabetic vs. control animals through the initial half year of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Oxycodone (OXY) is one of the most commonly abused opiates during pregnancy. Perinatal opiate exposure (POE) is associated with neurobehavioral and hormone changes. Little is known about the effects of perinatal OXY on the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stress. Objectives: to determine the effects of POE on: (1) CV responses to acute stress and ability to discriminate using a classical conditioning paradigm; (2) changes in CV response to the paradigm and retention of the ability to discriminate from postnatal day (PD) 40 to young adulthood. Methods: Pregnant rats were given i.v. OXY or vehicle (CON) daily. OXY and CON males were fitted with BP telemetry units. Offspring were classically conditioned by following a pulsed tone (CS+) with tail shock. A steady tone (CS−) was not followed by shock. BP and HR were recorded during resting periods and conditioning. Changes in BP, HR from composite analysis were compared. The paradigm was repeated on PD 75. Results: At PD 40, OXY rats had a lower baseline mean BP (OXY: 114.8 ± 1.0 vs. CON: 118.3 ± 1.0 mm Hg; mean ± SEM) but larger amplitude of the conditional BP increase during the stress response (OXY: +3.9 ± 0.4 vs. CON: +1.7 ± 0.4 mm Hg). Both OXY and CON rats were able to discriminate between CS+ and CS−. At PD 75, the effects of OXY on the increased amplitude of the conditional BP had dissipated (CON: +3.4 ± 2.3 vs. OXY: +4.5 ± 1.4 mm Hg). BP responses to the stress and non-stress stimuli did not differ in the OXY group, suggesting that OXY may have decreased the ability of the offspring to discriminate (OXY: CS+: 147.1 ± 1.6, CS−: 145.9 ± 1.6 mm Hg vs. CON: CS+: 155.4 ± 2.7, CS−: 147.8 ± 2.7 mm Hg). Conclusion: POE is associated with subtle alterations in stress CV responses in weanling rats which dissipate when the conditioning is repeated at an early adult age. Although POE effect on the ability to discriminate at weanling age could not be detected, POE may impair retention of this ability in adulthood.Frontiers in Physiology 04/2013; 4:85. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00085